Kubernetes Images – Kubernetes Tutorial

Kubernetes Images – Kubernetes Tutorial. Here Coding compiler sharing a tutorial on Kubernetes Images. In this tutorial, we will discuss on Updating Images, Using a Private Registry, Using Google Container Registry, Using AWS EC2 Container Registry, Using Azure Container Registry (ACR). Let’s start learning about Kubernetes. Happy learning.

Kubernetes Images

You create your Docker image and push it to a registry before referring to it in a Kubernetes pod.

The image property of a container supports the same syntax as the docker command does, including private registries and tags.

Updating Images

The default pull policy is IfNotPresent which causes the Kubelet to skip pulling an image if it already exists. If you would like to always force a pull, you can do one of the following:

  • set the imagePullPolicy of the container to Always;
  • use :latest as the tag for the image to use;
  • enable the AlwaysPullImages admission controller.

If you did not specify tag of your image, it will be assumed as :latest, with pull image policy of Always correspondingly.

Kubernetes Images – Using a Private Registry

Private registries may require keys to read images from them. Credentials can be provided in several ways:

  • Using Google Container Registry
    • Per-cluster
    • automatically configured on Google Compute Engine or Google Kubernetes Engine
    • all pods can read the project’s private registry
  • Using AWS EC2 Container Registry (ECR)
    • use IAM roles and policies to control access to ECR repositories
    • automatically refreshes ECR login credentials
  • Using Azure Container Registry (ACR)
  • Configuring Nodes to Authenticate to a Private Registry
    • all pods can read any configured private registries
    • requires node configuration by the cluster administrator
  • Pre-pulling Images
    • all pods can use any images cached on a node
    • requires root access to all nodes to setup
  • Specifying ImagePullSecrets on a Pod
    • only pods which provide own keys can access the private registry Each option is described in more detail below.

Using Google Container Registry

Kubernetes has native support for the Google Container Registry (GCR), when running on Google Compute Engine (GCE). If you are running your cluster on GCE or Google Kubernetes Engine, simply use the full image name (e.g. gcr.io/my_project/image:tag).

All pods in a cluster will have read access to images in this registry.

The kubelet will authenticate to GCR using the instance’s Google service account. The service account on the instance will have a https://www.googleapis.com/auth/devstorage.read_only, so it can pull from the project’s GCR, but not push.

Using AWS EC2 Container Registry

Kubernetes has native support for the AWS EC2 Container Registry, when nodes are AWS EC2 instances.

Simply use the full image name (e.g. ACCOUNT.dkr.ecr.REGION.amazonaws.com/imagename:tag) in the Pod definition.

All users of the cluster who can create pods will be able to run pods that use any of the images in the ECR registry.

The kubelet will fetch and periodically refresh ECR credentials. It needs the following permissions to do this:

  1. ecr:GetAuthorizationToken
  2. ecr:BatchCheckLayerAvailability
  3. ecr:GetDownloadUrlForLayer
  4. ecr:GetRepositoryPolicy
  5. ecr:DescribeRepositories
  6. ecr:ListImages
  7. ecr:BatchGetImage

Requirements:

  • You must be using kubelet version v1.2.0 or newer. (e.g. run /usr/bin/kubelet --version=true).
  • If your nodes are in region A and your registry is in a different region B, you need version v1.3.0 or newer.
  • ECR must be offered in your region

Troubleshooting:

  • Verify all requirements above.
  • Get $REGION (e.g. us-west-2) credentials on your workstation. SSH into the host and run Docker manually with those creds. Does it work?
  • Verify kubelet is running with --cloud-provider=aws.
  • Check kubelet logs (e.g. journalctl -u kubelet) for log lines like:
    • plugins.go:56] Registering credential provider: aws-ecr-key
    • provider.go:91] Refreshing cache for provider: *aws_credentials.ecrProvider

Using Azure Container Registry (ACR)

When using Azure Container Registry you can authenticate using either an admin user or a service principal. In either case, authentication is done via standard Docker authentication. These instructions assume the azure-cli command line tool.

You first need to create a registry and generate credentials, complete documentation for this can be found in the Azure container registry documentation.

Once you have created your container registry, you will use the following credentials to login:

  • DOCKER_USER : service principal, or admin username
  • DOCKER_PASSWORD: service principal password, or admin user password
  • DOCKER_REGISTRY_SERVER${some-registry-name}.azurecr.io
  • DOCKER_EMAIL${some-email-address}

Once you have those variables filled in you can configure a Kubernetes Secret and use it to deploy a Pod.

Configuring Nodes to Authenticate to a Private Repository

Note: if you are running on Google Kubernetes Engine, there will already be a .dockercfg on each node with credentials for Google Container Registry. You cannot use this approach.

Note: if you are running on AWS EC2 and are using the EC2 Container Registry (ECR), the kubelet on each node will manage and update the ECR login credentials. You cannot use this approach.

Note: this approach is suitable if you can control node configuration. It will not work reliably on GCE, and any other cloud provider that does automatic node replacement.

Docker stores keys for private registries in the $HOME/.dockercfg or $HOME/.docker/config.json file. If you put this in the $HOME of user root on a kubelet, then docker will use it.

Here are the recommended steps to configuring your nodes to use a private registry. In this example, run these on your desktop/laptop:

  1. Run docker login [server] for each set of credentials you want to use. This updates $HOME/.docker/config.json.
  2. View $HOME/.docker/config.json in an editor to ensure it contains just the credentials you want to use.
  3. Get a list of your nodes, for example:
    • if you want the names: nodes=$(kubectl get nodes -o jsonpath='{range.items[*].metadata}{.name} {end}')
    • if you want to get the IPs: nodes=$(kubectl get nodes -o jsonpath='{range .items[*].status.addresses[?(@.type=="ExternalIP")]}{.address} {end}')
  4. Copy your local .docker/config.json to the home directory of root on each node.
    • for example: for n in $nodes; do scp ~/.docker/config.json [email protected]$n:/root/.docker/config.json; done

Verify by creating a pod that uses a private image, e.g.:

$ cat <<EOF > /tmp/private-image-test-1.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: private-image-test-1
spec:
  containers:
    - name: uses-private-image
      image: $PRIVATE_IMAGE_NAME
      imagePullPolicy: Always
      command: [ "echo", "SUCCESS" ]
EOF
$ kubectl create -f /tmp/private-image-test-1.yaml
pod "private-image-test-1" created
$

If everything is working, then, after a few moments, you should see:

$ kubectl logs private-image-test-1
SUCCESS

If it failed, then you will see:

$ kubectl describe pods/private-image-test-1 | grep "Failed"
  Fri, 26 Jun 2015 15:36:13 -0700    Fri, 26 Jun 2015 15:39:13 -0700    19    {kubelet node-i2hq}    spec.containers{uses-private-image}    failed        Failed to pull image "user/privaterepo:v1": Error: image user/privaterepo:v1 not found

You must ensure all nodes in the cluster have the same .docker/config.json. Otherwise, pods will run on some nodes and fail to run on others. For example, if you use node autoscaling, then each instance template needs to include the .docker/config.json or mount a drive that contains it.

All pods will have read access to images in any private registry once private registry keys are added to the .docker/config.json.

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Kubernetes API Extensions – Kubernetes Tutorial

Kubernetes API Extensions – Kubernetes Tutorial. Here Coding compiler sharing a tutorial on Kubernetes API extensions. Let’s start learning about Kubernetes. Happy learning.

Kubernetes API Extensions

There are many types of Kubernetes API Extensions are there. They are:

User-Defined Types

Consider adding a Custom Resource to Kubernetes if you want to define new controllers, application configuration objects or other declarative APIs, and to manage them using Kubernetes tools, such as kubectl.

Do not use a Custom Resource as data storage for application, user, or monitoring data.

Read Related Article: What is Kubernetes?

Combining New APIs with Automation

Often, when you add a new API, you also add a control loop that reads and/or writes the new APIs. When the combination of a Custom API and a control loop is used to manage a specific, usually stateful, application, this is called the Operator pattern. Custom APIs and control loops can also be used to control other resources, such as storage, policies, and so on.

Related Article: Kubernetes Architecture

Changing Built-in Resources

When you extend the Kubernetes API by adding custom resources, the added resources always fall into a new API Groups. You cannot replace or change existing API groups. Adding an API does not directly let you affect the behavior of existing APIs (e.g. Pods), but API Access Extensions do.

Related Article For You: Kubernetes Components

API Access Extensions

When a request reaches the Kubernetes API Server, it is first Authenticated, then Authorized, then subject to various types of Admission Control. See [Accessing the API] for more on this flow.

Each of these steps offers extension points.

Kubernetes has several built-in authentication methods that it supports. It can also sit behind an authenticating proxy, and it can send a token from an Authorization header to a remote service for verification (a webhook). All of these methods are covered in the Authentication documentation.

Related Article: Kubernetes Objects

Authentication

Authentication maps headers or certificates in all requests to a username for the client making the request.

Kubernetes provides several built-in authentication methods, and an Authentication webhook method if those don’t meet your needs.

Related Article: Kubernetes Names And Namespaces

Authorization

Authorization determines whether specific users can read, write, and do other operations on API resources. It just works at the level of whole resources – it doesn’t discriminate based on arbitrary object fields. If the built-in authorization options don’t meet your needs, and Authorization webhook allows calling out to user-provided code to make an authorization decision.

Related Article: Kubernetes API Tutorial

Dynamic Admission Control

After a request is authorized, if it is a write operation, it also goes through Admission Control steps. In addition to the built-in steps, there are several extensions:

  • The Image Policy webhook restricts what images can be run in containers.
  • To make arbitrary admission control decisions, a general Admission webhook can be used. Admission Webhooks can reject creations or updates.
  • Initializers are controllers that can modify objects before they are created. Initializers can modify initial object creations but cannot affect updates to objects. Initializers can also reject objects.

Infrastructure Extensions

There are several infrastructure extensions are there in Kubernetes. They are:

Related Article: Kubernetes Cluster Tutorial

Storage Plugins

Flex Volumes allow users to mount volume types without built-in support by having the Kubelet call a Binary Plugin to mount the volume.

Device Plugins

Device plugins allow a node to discover new Node resources (in addition to the builtin ones like cpu and memory) via a Device Plugin.

Network Plugins

Different networking fabrics can be supported via node-level Network Plugins.

Scheduler Extensions

The scheduler is a special type of controller that watches pods and assigns pods to nodes. The default scheduler can be replaced entirely while continuing to use other Kubernetes components, or multiple schedulers can run at the same time.

This is a significant undertaking, and almost all Kubernetes users find they do not need to modify the scheduler.

The scheduler also supports a webhook that permits a webhook backend (scheduler extension) to filter and prioritize the nodes chosen for a pod.

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Want to learn Kubernetes from industry experts?

Get register for a FREE demo on Kubernetes Training @ Contact us.

Kubernetes Cluster – Kubernetes Tutorial

Kubernetes Cluster – Kubernetes Tutorial. Here Coding compiler sharing a tutorial on Kubernetes cluster, Kubernetes cluster overview, Kubernetes cluster configuration, and Kubernetes extensions. Let’s start learning about Kubernetes. Happy learning.

Kubernetes Cluster

Kubernetes is highly configurable and extensible. As a result, there is rarely a need to fork or submit patches to the Kubernetes project code.

This guide describes the options for customizing a Kubernetes cluster. It is aimed at Cluster Operators who want to understand how to adapt their Kubernetes cluster to the needs of their work environment.

Developers who are prospective Platform Developers or Kubernetes Project Contributors will also find it useful as an introduction to what extension points and patterns exist, and their trade-offs and limitations.

Read Related Article: What is Kubernetes?

Kubernetes Cluster Overview

Customization approaches can be broadly divided into the configuration, which only involves changing flags, local configuration files, or API resources; and extensions, which involve running additional programs or services. This document is primarily about extensions.

Related Article For You: Kubernetes Components

Kubernetes Cluster Configuration

Configuration files and flags are documented in the Reference section of the online documentation, under each binary:

  • kubelet
  • kube-apiserver
  • kube-controller-manager
  • kube-scheduler

Flags and configuration files may not always be changeable in a hosted Kubernetes service or a distribution with the managed installation. When they are changeable, they are usually only changeable by the cluster administrator.

Also, they are subject to change in future Kubernetes versions, and setting them may require restarting processes. For those reasons, they should be used only when there are no other options.

Related Article: Kubernetes Objects

Kubernetes Cluster Extensions

Extensions are software components that extend and deeply integrate with Kubernetes. They adapt it to support new types and new kinds of hardware.

Most cluster administrators will use a hosted or distribution instance of Kubernetes. As a result, most Kubernetes users will need to install extensions and fewer will need to author new ones.

Related Article: Kubernetes Names And Namespaces

Kubernetes Cluster Extension Patterns

Kubernetes is designed to be automated by writing client programs. Any program that reads and/or writes to the Kubernetes API can provide useful automation. Automation can run on the cluster or off it.

By following the guidance in this doc you can write highly available and robust automation. Automation generally works with any Kubernetes cluster, including hosted clusters and managed installations.

Related Article: Kubernetes API Tutorial

There is a specific pattern for writing client programs that work well with Kubernetes called the Controller pattern. Controllers typically read an object’s .spec, possibly do things, and then update the object’s .status.

A controller is a client of Kubernetes. When Kubernetes is the client and calls out to a remote service, it is called a Webhook. The remote service is called a Webhook Backend. Like Controllers, Webhooks do add a point of failure.

In the webhook model, Kubernetes makes a network request to a remote service. In the Binary Plugin model, Kubernetes executes a binary (program). Binary plugins are used by the kubelet.

Related Article: Kubernetes Architecture Tutorial

Below is a diagram showing how the extensions points interact with the Kubernetes control plane.

Kubernetes control plane
Kubernetes control plane

Kubernetes Cluster Extension Points

This diagram shows the extension points in a Kubernetes system.

Kubernetes Extension Points
Kubernetes Extension Points
  1. Users often interact with the Kubernetes API using kubectlKubectl plugins extend the kubectl binary. They only affect the individual user’s local environment, and so cannot enforce site-wide policies.
  2. The apiserver handles all requests. Several types of extension points in the apiserver allow authenticating requests, or blocking them based on their content, editing content, and handling deletion. These are described in the API Access Extensions section.
  3. The apiserver serves various kinds of resourcesBuilt-in resource kinds, like pods, are defined by the Kubernetes project and can’t be changed. You can also add resources that you define, or that other projects have defined, called Custom Resources, as explained in the Custom Resources section. Custom Resources are often used with API Access Extensions.
  4. The Kubernetes scheduler decides which nodes to place pods on. There are several ways to extend scheduling. These are described in the Scheduler Extensions section.
  5. Much of the behavior of Kubernetes is implemented by programs called Controllers which are clients of the API-Server. Controllers are often used in conjunction with Custom Resources.
  6. The kubelet runs on servers, and helps pods appear like virtual servers with their own IPs on the cluster network. Network Plugins allow for different implementations of pod networking.
  7. The kubelet also mounts and unmounts volumes for containers. New types of storage can be supported via Storage Plugins.

If you are unsure where to start, this flowchart can help. Note that some solutions may involve several types of extensions.

Types of Kubernetes Extensions - Flowchart
Types of Kubernetes Extensions – Flowchart

OTHER KUBERNETES TUTORIALS

What is Kubernetes?

Kubernetes Components

Kubernetes Objects

Kubernetes Names And Namespaces

Kubernetes API

Kubernetes Architecture

Kubernetes Interview Questions

Want to learn Kubernetes from industry experts?

Get register for a FREE demo on Kubernetes Training @ Contact us.

Java Performance Tuning Tips For Programmers

Java Performance Tuning Tips For Programmers 2018. Want to make your project always high-performance operation? Here Coding compiler sharing some tips you can take to eliminate cache bottlenecks, as well as some other performance tuning suggestions. All the best and happy learning.

Java Performance Tuning

Most developers think that performance optimization is a complex topic that requires a lot of work experience and related knowledge theory. Well, this is not completely wrong. Optimizing an application for performance optimization may not be an easy task, but that does not mean you can not do anything without knowledge.

Java Performance Tuning Tips

Here are some easy to follow recommendations and best practices to help you create a good application.

  1. Do not rush to optimize until you clearly need it
  2. Use the analyzer to find the real bottleneck
  3. Create a performance test suite for the entire application
  4. Give priority to the biggest bottleneck
  5. Use StringBuilder to programmatically concatenate strings
  6. Use + to concatenate a string in a statement
  7. Use basic types whenever possible
  8. Try to avoid large integers and decimals
  9. Priority check the current log level
  10. Use Apache Commons StringUtils.Replace instead of String.replace
  11. Expensive cache resources, such as database connections

Most of these suggestions are for the Java language. But there are some languages that are not language-specific and you can apply them to any application or program. Before we learn about Java programming performance tuning, let’s explore some common techniques.

1) Do not rush to optimize until you clearly need it

This is probably one of the most important performance tuning tips. You should follow common best practices and apply it effectively in your case. However, this does not mean that you should replace any standard library or build complex optimizations until proven necessary.

In most cases, premature optimization can take a long time and can make the code harder to read and read. To make matters worse, these optimizations do not usually make any difference because you spend a lot of time optimizing non-critical parts of your application.

So, how to prove that things need to be optimized?

First, you need to define your code much faster. For example, specify the maximum response time for all API calls, or specify the number of records to import within a specific time range. After doing this, you need to determine which parts of your application are too slow to improve. When done, you can take a look at the second tip.

2) Use the analyzer to find the real bottleneck

After completing the first part of the optimization recommendations to identify your application need to enhance the part, where to start from?

There are two ways you can solve this problem:

  1. Check your code, starting with something that looks suspicious or where you think it might cause problems.
  2. Or use the analyzer to get the behavior of each part of the code (execution process) and performance details.

I hope I do not need to explain why you should always follow the second approach / method.

Obviously, the parser-based approach allows you to better understand the performance impact of code and allows you to focus on the more critical part (code). Even if you’ve used parsers before, you’ll have to remember how surprised you were to find out which parts of your code are causing performance problems. My first guess led me more than once in the wrong direction.

3) Create a performance test suite for the entire application

This is another general-purpose trick that can help you avoid many of the unexpected issues that often occur after deploying performance improvements into your product. You should always define a performance test suite to test the entire application and run it before and after performance improvements.

These extra tests will help you identify the functional and performance side effects of your changes and ensure they do not lead to more harm than good updates. This is especially important if you are dealing with components that are used by different parts of the application, such as databases or caches.

4) Give priority to the biggest bottleneck

After you have created a test suite and analyzed your application with a profiler, you can list a list of issues that need to be addressed to improve performance. This is fine, but it does not answer the question of where you need to start. You can focus on quick fixes or start with the most important questions.

The quick start may be appealing at the beginning because you can quickly show the first result. But sometimes, it may be necessary to convince other team members or management that performance analysis is worth it.

In general, I suggest starting with the top-level, first to start with the most important performance issues. This will provide you with the maximum performance improvement, and you may only need to address a few of these problems to meet your performance requirements.

This is the end of common tuning techniques. Let’s take a closer look at some Java-specific skills.

5) Use StringBuilder to programmatically concatenate strings

There are many different options in Java to concatenate strings. For example, you could use simple + or + = as well as old StringBuffer or StringBuilder.

So, what method should you choose?

The answer depends on the code that concatenates the string. If you programmatically add new content to a string, such as in a for loop, you should use StringBuilder. It’s easy to use and offers better performance than StringBuffer. However, keep in mind that StringBuilder is not thread-safe compared to StringBuffer and may not be suitable for all situations.

You only need to instantiate a new StringBuilder and call the append method to add a new part to the String. After you have added all the parts, you can call the toString () method to retrieve the connected string.

The following code snippet shows a simple example. During each iteration, the loop converts i to a String and adds it to the StringBuilder sb  along with spaces  . So, finally, this code writes “This is a test0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9” in the log file.

StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder ("This is a test"); for (int i = 0; i <10; i ++) {
    sb.append (i);
    sb.append ("");
}
log.info (sb.toString ());

As you can see in the code snippet. We can provide the first element of the string into the constructor. This will create a  StringBuilder  that contains the string you provide and the capacity of 16 additional characters. When you add more characters to  StringBuilder  , your JVM will dynamically increase  the size of the StringBuilder  .

If you already know how many characters the string will contain, you can supply that number to a different constructor to instantiate a StringBuilder with the specified size. This further increases efficiency because it does not need to dynamically scale its capacity.

6) Use + to concatenate a string in a statement

When you use Java to implement your first application, someone may have told you not to use + to connect strings. This is true if you are concatenating strings within your application logic. Strings are immutable, and the concatenation of each string is stored in a new string object. This requires extra storage and may slow down your application, especially if you are connecting multiple strings within a loop.

In these cases, you should follow Tip 5 and use  StringBuilder.

However, this does not apply if you simply improve the readability of the code by breaking the string into multiple lines.

Query q = em.createQuery ("SELECT a.id, a.firstName, a.lastName"
+ "FROM Author a"
+ "WHERE a.id =: id");

In these scenarios, you should use simple + to concatenate strings. Your Java compiler optimizes it and completes the connection at compile time. Therefore, your code will only use one string at runtime, and does not require any linking operations.

7) Use basic types whenever possible

Another quick and easy way to avoid any overhead and improve application performance is to use base types instead of their wrapper classes. So, it’s best to use int instead of Integer, double instead of Double. This will allow your  JVM  to store the value on the stack instead of the heap to reduce memory consumption and handle it more efficiently.

8) Try to avoid large integers and decimals

Since we are already talking about data types, we should also be able to quickly browse for large integers and decimals. In particular, the latter is popular for its accuracy. But this is a price.

Larger integers and decimals  require more memory than a simple  long  or  double type and can significantly slow down all operations. So, if you need extra precision, or if your numbers go beyond a longer range, it’s best to think twice. This may be the only way you need to change and solve performance problems, especially when implementing mathematical algorithms.

9) Priority check the current log level

This advice should be obvious, but unfortunately, many people ignore it when writing code. Before creating a debug message, you should always prioritize the current log level. Otherwise, you might create a string that appends your log message, and the string is ignored after that.

Here are two negative examples that you should not do.

// do not do this
log.debug ("User [" + userName + "] called method X with [" + i + "]");
// or this
log.debug (String.format ("User [% s] called method X with [% d]", userName, i));

In both of these examples, you will perform all the necessary steps to create a log message without knowing if the log framework will use log messages. Therefore, before creating debug messages, it is best to check the current log level.

// do thisif (log.isDebugEnabled ()) {
    log.debug ("User [" + userName + "] called method X with [" + i + "]");
}

10) Use Apache Commons StringUtils.Replace instead of String.replace

In general, the String.replace method works fine and is very efficient, especially if you are using Java 9. However, if your application requires a large number of replacements and does not update to the latest Java version, it may still be necessary to examine faster and more efficient alternatives.

One alternative is  the  StringUtils.replace method of  Apache Commons Lang . It outperforms Java 8’s String.replace method. 

And it requires only minor changes. You simply add the Maven dependencies for the Apache Commons Lang project to your application’s pom.xml and replace all calls to String.replacemethod with the StringUtils.replace method.

// replace this
test.replace ("test", "simple test");
// with this
StringUtils.replace (test, "test", "simple test");

11) expensive cache resources, such as database connections

Caching is a popular solution to avoid repeatedly executing expensive or commonly used code snippets. The general idea is simple: reusing these resources is more cost-effective than creating a new one.

A typical example is the database connection in the cache pool. The creation of a new connection takes time, and you can avoid it if you reuse existing connections.

You can find other examples in the Java language source. For example, the valueOf method in the Integer class caches values between -128 and 127. You might argue that creating a new Integer is not too expensive, but since it is often used, the most common value for caching can also provide performance benefits.

However, when you consider caching, keep in mind that the cache implementation also incurs overhead. You need to spend extra memory to store reusable resources, so you may need to manage your cache to make the resources accessible and remove outdated resources.

So, before you start caching any resource, make sure that they are often used to exceed the cost of the cache implementation.

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295 Android Interview Questions

Android Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers Experienced

Android Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers Experienced 2018. Here Coding compiler sharing a list of 295 android interview questions for experienced and freshers. This list will help you to prepare well for android technical job interviews and crack your next android job interview. All the best for your future and happy learning.

Android Interview Questions

  1. What is URLConnection?
  2. What is logging (Logcat)?
  3. What is AsyncTask?
  4. What is JSON?
  5. How many different logcat types are there?
  6. What are the names of the specific logcats?
  7. Logging methods require two strings, what does each string represent?
  8. What are the four AsyncTask methods that must be overridden?
  9. Where are permissions declared?
  10. What is meant by responsive design?

Android Interview Questions And Answers

1) What is URLConnection?

A) An URLConnection used to send and receive data over the web. Data may be of any type and length. This class may be used to send and receive streaming data whose length is not known in advance.

2) What is logging (Logcat)?

A) The logging (Logcat) system provides a mechanism for collecting and viewing system debug output.

3) What is AsyncTask?

A) AsyncTask enables proper and easy use of the UI thread. This class allows to perform background operations and publish results on the UI thread without having to manipulate threads and/or handlers.

4) What is JSON?

A) JSON is a minimal, readable format for structuring data. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, as an alternative to XML.

5) How many different logcat types are there?

A) 5

6) What are the names of the specific logcats?

A) Verbose, Debug, Info, Warn and Error

7) Logging methods require two strings, what does each string represent?

A) The first string (Tag) identifies where the log is coming from and the second is the specific log message.

8) What are the four AsyncTask methods that must be overridden?

A) onPreExecute, doInBackground, onProgressUpdate, onPostExecute

9) Where are permissions declared?

A) AndroidManifest.xml file

10) What is meant by responsive design?

A) Its a layout that adjust automatically depending on screen size.

Android Interview Questions For Freshers

11) What are the three layout managers?

A) LinearLayout, RelativeLayout, and FrameLayout

12) Why are view recycled?

A) Less memory overhead, smoother scrolling and less view management.

13) What is Activity Lifecycle?

A) onCreate, onStart, onResume, onPause, onStop, onDestroy

14) What is onPause?

A) Partially visible, Popup or Dialog

15) What is onStop?

A) Not visible

16) What is Service Lifecycle

A) onCreate, startCommand, onBind

17) What is onUnbind?

A) stopService/stopSelf, onDestroy

18) What are Android Components?

A) Activity, Service, Broadcast Receiver, Content Provider

19) What Android 4.0 Library contains?

A) A project folder that contains the android.jar file which includes all class libraries needed to build an Android app for a specified version

20) What main/assets/ directory contains?

A) Directory that contains asset files that are accessed through classic file manipulation

Android Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers

21) What main/gen/ directory contains?

A) Directory that contains automatically generated JAVA files

22) What is Change Gravity?

A) A tool that changes the linear alignment of a control so that is is aligned to the left, center, right top or bottom of an object or the screen

23) What is compound condition?

A) More than one condition included in an If statement

24) What is decision structure?

A) A fundamental control structure used in computer programming that deals with the different conditions that occur based on the values entered into an application

25) What is equals method?

A) A method of the String class that JAVA uses to compare strings

26) What is hexadecimal color code?

A) A triplet of three colors using hexadecimal numbers, where colors are specified first by a pound sign followed by how much red (00 to FF), how much green (00 to FF), and how much blue, (00 to FF) are in the final color.

27) What is If Else statement?

A) A statement that executes one set of instructions if a specified condition is true and another set of instructions if the condition is false.

28) What is if statement?

A) A statement that executes one set of instructions if a specified condition is true and takes no action if the condition is not true.

29) What is isChecked() method?

A) A method that tests a checked property to determine if a RadioButton object has been selected.

30) What is launcher icon?

A) An icon that appears on the home screen to represent the application.

Android Developer Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers

31) What is margin?

A) Blank space that offsets a control by a certain amount of density independent pixels (dp) on each of its four sides.

32) What is nest?

A) To place one statement, such as an If statement, within another statement.

33) What is Radio Group?

A) A group of RadioButton controls; only one RadioButton control can be selected at a time.

34) What is toast notification?

A) A message that appears as an overlay on a user’s screen, often displaying a validation warning.

35) What is ACTION_VIEW?

A) A generic action you can use to send any request to get the most reasonable action to occur.

36) What is adapter?

A) Provides a data model for the layout of a list and for converting the data from the array into list items.

37) What is array variable?

A) A variable that can store more than one value

38) What is a break?

A) A statement that ends a case within a Switch statement and continues with the statement following the Switch decision structure.

39) What is a case?

A) A keyword used in a Switch statement to indicate a condition. In a Switch statement, the case keyword is followed by a value and a colon.

40) What is an element?

A) A single individual item that contains a value in an array.

Android Basic Interview Questions And Answers

41) What is ListActivity?

A) A class that displays a list of items within an app.

42) What is onListItemClick()?

A) A method called when an item in a list is selected.

43) What is position?

A) The placement of an item in a list. When an item in a list is selected, the position of the item is passed from the onListItemClick method and evaluated with a decision structure. The first item is assigned the position of 0, the second item is assigned the position of 1, and so forth.

44) What is setListAdapter?

A) A command that projects your data to the onscreen list on your device by connecting the listActivity’s object to array data.

45) What is Switch?

A) A type of decision statement that allows you to choose from many statements based on an integer or char input.

46) What is URI?

A) An acronym for Uniform Resource Identifier, a URI is a string that identifies the resources of the Web. Similar to a URL, a URI includes additional information necessary for gaining access to the resources required for posting the page.

47) What is URL?

A) An acronym for Uniform Resource Locator, a URL is a Web site address.

48) What is 9-patch image?

A) A special image with predefined stretching areas that maintain the same look on different screen sizes

49) What is android:oneshot?

A) An attribute of the animation-list that determines whether an animation plays once and then stops or continues to play until the Stop Animation button is tapped.

50) What is AnimationDrawable class?

A) A class that provides the methods for Drawable animations to create a sequence of frame-by-frame images

Android Basic Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers

51) What is animation-list?

A) An XML root element that references images stored in the drawable folders

52) What is Frame animation?

A) A type of animation, also called frame-by-frame animation, that plays a sequence of images, as in a slide show, with a specified interval between images.

53) What is motion tween?

A) A type of animation that specifies the start state of an object, and then animates the object a predetermined number of times or an infinite number of times using a transition.

54) What is setBackgroundResource?

A) A method that places images in the frame-by-frame display for an animation, with each frame pointing to an image referenced in the XML resource file.

55) What is startAnimation?

A) A method that begins the animation process of a View object by calling the AnimationUtils class utilities to access the resources necessary to load the animation.

56) What is Tween animation?

A) A type of animation that, instead of using a sequence of images, creates an animation by performing a series of transformations on a single image, such as position, size, rotation, and transparency, on the contents of a View object.

57) What is tween effect?

A) A transition that changes objects from one state to another, such as moving, rotating, growing, or shrinking.

58) What is Android Application Module?

A) The container for application’s source code, resource files, and application level settings, such as the module-level build file, resource files, and Android Manifest file

59) What is Test Module?

A) Module that contains the source code to test application projects and is built into test application that run on a device

60) What is JUnit?

A) A unit testing framework for the Java programming language

Android Developer Interview Questions For Freshers

61) What is TDD (Test-driven development)?

A) A software development process that relies on the repetition of a very short development cycle: first an automated test case is written that defines a desired improvement of new function

62) What is Test case?

A) Set of conditions under which a tester will determine whether an application, software system or one of features is working as was originally established for it to do

63) What is Software system?

A) System of intercommunicating components based on software forming part of the computer system

64) What is Library module?

A) Module that contains shareable Android source code and resources that developer can reference in Android projects

65) What is GAE (Google App Engine)?

A) A PaaS cloud computing platform for developing and hosting web applications in Google-managed data centers

66) What is PaaS?

A) A category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure

67) What is GCM (Google Cloud Messaging)?

A) A mobile service developed by Google that enables third-party application developers to send notification data or information from developer-run servers to applications

68) What is .idea/ directory?

A) Directoty for IntelliJ IDEA settings

69) What is app/ directory?

A) A folder that contains application module directories and files

70) What is gradle/ directory?

A) A folder that contains the gradle-wrapper files

Basic Android Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers

71) What is .gitignore?

A) Specifies the untracked files that Git should ignore

72) What is build.gradle?

A) Customizable properties for the build system

73) What is gradle.properties?

A) Project-wide gradle settings

74) What is gradlew?

A) Gradle startup script for Unix

75) What is gradlew.bat?

A) Gradle startup script for Windows

76) What is local.properties?

A) Customizable computer-specific properties for the build system, such as the path to the SDK installation

77) What is .iml directory?

A) Module file created by IntelliJ IDEA to store module information

78) What is settings.gradle?

A) Specifies the sub-projects to build

79) What is build/ directory?

A) Directory that contains build folders for the specified build variants

80) What is libs/ directory?

A) Directory that contains private libraries

Android Questions For Freshers

81) What is src/ directory?

A) Directory that contains the stub Activity file and other source code files

82) What is androidTest/ directory?

A) Directory that contains the instrumentation tests

83) What is main/java/com.<project>.<app>?

A) Directory that contains Java source code for the app activities

84) What is main/jni/ directory?

A) Directory that contains native code using the JNI

85) What is Android NDK?

A) A toolset that allows you to implement parts of your app using native-code languages

86) What is IDL (interface definition language)?

A) A specification language used to describe a software component’s API

87) What is main/res/ directory?

A) Directory that contains application resources, such as drawable files, layout files, and string values

88) What is anim/ directory?

A) Directory for XML files that are compiled into animation objects

89) What is color/ directory?

A) Directory for XML files that describe colors

90) What is drawable/ directory?

A) Directory for bitmap files (PNG, JPG, or GIF), 9-Patch image files, and XML files that describe Drawable shapes or Drawable objects that contain multiple states

Android Developer Interview Questions

91) What is ColorStateList?

A) An object you can define in XML that you can apply as a color, but will actually change colors, depending on a state of the View object to which it is aplied

92) What is mipmap/ directory?

A) Directory for app launcher icons

93) What is layout/ directory?

A) Directory for XML files that are compiled into screen layouts

94) What is menu/ directory?

A) Directory for XML files that define application menus

95) What is raw/ directory?

A) Directory for arbitrary raw asset files

96) What is AAPT (Android Asset Packaging Tool)?

A) AAPT is a part of SDK that allows developers to view, create and update Zip-compatible archives

97) What is values/ directory?

A) Directory for XML files that define resources by XML element type

98) What is xml/ directory?

A) Directory for miscellaneous XML files that configure application components

100) What is AndroidManifest.xml?

A) The control file that describes the nature of the application and each of its components

Important Android Interview Questions And Answers

101) What is app.iml/ directory?

A) IntelliJ IDEA module

102) What is proguard-rules.pro?

A) ProGuard settings file

103) What is API Level, codename of Android 2.3.3 – 2.3.7?

A) 9-10, Gingerbread

104) What is API Level, codename of Android 4.0.3 – 4.0.4?

A) 15, Ice Cream Sandwich

105) What is API Level, codename of Android 4.1 – 4.3?

A) 16-18, Jelly Bean

106) What is API Level, codename of Android 4.4?

A) 19, KitKat

107) What is API Level, codename of Android 5.0 – 5.1?

A) 20-21, Lollipop

108) API Level, codename of Android 6.0?

A) 23, Marshmallow

109) What is android:minSdkVersion?

A) Specifies the minimum API Level on which the application is able to run

110) What is android:targetSdkVersion?

A) Specifies the API Level on which the application is designed to run

Most Asked Android Interview Questions And Answers

111) What is android:maxSdkVersion?

A) Specifies the maximum API Level on which the application is able to run

112) What is applicationId?

A) Fully qualified package name for the application

113) What is hexadecimal color code?

A) A triplet of three colors using hexadecimal numbers, where colors are specified first by a pound sign followed by how much red (00 to FF), how much green (00 to FF), and how much blue, (00 to FF) are in the final color.

114) What is isChecked() method?

A) A method that tests a checked property to determine if a RadioButton object has been selected.

115) What is toast notification?

A) A message that appears as an overlay on a user’s screen, often displaying a validation warning.

116) What is ACTION_VIEW?

A) A generic action you can use to send any request to get the most reasonable action to occur.

117) What is ListActivity?

A) A class that displays a list of items within an app.

118) What is onListItemClick()?

A) A method called when an item in a list is selected.

119) What is setListAdapter?

A) A command that projects your data to the onscreen list on your device by connecting the listActivity’s object to array data.

120) What is 9-patch image?

A) A special image with predefined stretching areas that maintain the same look on different screen sizes

Android Interview Questions For Experienced

121) What is setBackgroundResource?

A) A method that places images in the frame-by-frame display for an animation, with each frame pointing to an image referenced in the XML resource file.

122) What is startAnimation?

A) A method that begins the animation process of a View object by calling the AnimationUtils class utilities to access the resources necessary to load the animation.

123) What is Tween animation?

A) A type of animation that, instead of using a sequence of images, creates an animation by performing a series of transformations on a single image, such as position, size, rotation, and transparency, on the contents of a View object.

124) What is tween effect?

A) A transition that changes objects from one state to another, such as moving, rotating, growing, or shrinking.

125) What is TDD (Test-driven development)?

A) A software development process that relies on the repetition of a very short development cycle: first an automated test case is written that defines a desired improvement of new function

126) What is GAE (Google App Engine)?

A) A PaaS cloud computing platform for developing and hosting web applications in Google-managed data centers

127) What is GCM (Google Cloud Messaging)?

A) A mobile service developed by Google that enables third-party application developers to send notification data or information from developer-run servers to applications

128) What is Android NDK?

A) A toolset that allows you to implement parts of your app using native-code languages

129) What can sensors measure?

A) Relative humidity
Pressure
Magnetic field
Steps taken
Proximity
The rate of ratation of the device on x,y,z axes

130) What is a Physical Sensor?

A) Sensors that pieces of hardware that are physically present on the device. Know as Hardware Sensors.

Top Android Interview Questions Experienced

131) What are Synthetic sensors?

A) Sensors that are not physicall present on the device. They are derived from one or more sensors

132) What is Raw?

A) Values directly given by the sensor without any correction logic.

Accelerometers, proximity sensors, light sensors,

133) What is Calibrated?

A) Values from sensors that are corrected by the operating system

134) What is Fused?

A) Sensors that gets values from two or more sensors. These values are combined to one value

135) What is SensorManager?

A) Provides access for your app to the sensors.

136) What is Continuous?

A) That report mode when sensor events are generated at a constant rate defined by the sampling peroid

137) What is On change?

A) That report mode when sensor events are generated only if the measured values have changed since the last known value

138) What is One shot?

A) The report mode when sensors only are triggerd once in the entire duration of the event

139) What is Special Trigger?

A) The report mode when the sensor only is trigged when it’s called on. It listen for an event to fire

140) Which of the following are true about Intent.CALL_ACTION?

A) dial + dialled

Android Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced

141) Activity results handled by the onActivityResult() method are differentiated from one another using which code?

A) Result Code

142) Which of the following is layout that you can use in a window in an Android application?

A) FrameLayout

143) How do you access the string resource stored in the strings.xml file?

A) You can use the getResources() method

144) Which of the following methods is used to return a View from a layout file given the ID of the View?

A) .findViewById(int id)

145) Which of the following used to detect when a user clicks or taps on a button?

A) OnClickListener

146) What is contained within the manifest xml file?

A) The permissions the application requires Correct

147) Android: Which attribute will be used in XML if the Java code needs a reference to View??

A) android:id

148) How do you programmatically determine whether a RadioButton is checked?

A) You should check the isChecked() method

149) What is NotificationManager class?

A) The NotificationManager class is used to display notifications on the device’s status bar

150) Which dialog box can you use in you Android application?

A) AlertDialog

Android Interview Questions For 1 Year Experience

151) On android, a layout can contain other layout?

A) True

152) How to set data for a Spinner control?

A) Use method setAdapter()

153) In auto-generated code of an Android app, what is R class?

A) Contains IDs of the project resources

154) How does Android system manage activity’s life cycle?

A) Via system activity stack

155) What is the correct HTML5 element for playing video files?

A) <video>

156) Does CSS support to detecting device size and orientation?

A) True

155) What is NOT correct about Controller in Sencha Touch?

A) Responsible for responding to events that occur within your app

156) Which file is entry point for Sencha Touch app?

A) app.js

157) Which doctype is correct for HTML5?

A) <!DOCTYPE html>

158) Which kind of application when creating with Sencha Touch?

A) Hybrid app

159) Graphics defined by SVG is in which format?

A) XML

160) In HTML5, onblur and onfocus are?

A) Event attributes

170) Which Android File API to create a file?

A) openFileOutput()

171) Does HTML5 native support for local storage?

A) True

Android Web Services Interview Questions And Answers

172) How to check if browser supports web storage?

A) Check if typeof(Storage) !== “undefined”

173) How to apply stylesheet with HTML element by id?

A) #id

174) How to get the form data in Sencha Touch?

A) getFormInstance().getValues();

175) Which permission needed in order to use MapActivity?

A) <uses-permission android:name=”android.permission.INTERNET” />

176) On android services, onStart() and onBind() are the same?

A) False

177) Do we need API key for displaying Google Maps in Android?

A) yes

178) How to register a broadcast receiver?

A) Via AndroidManifestxml file

179) Is color a new HTML5 element of input type?

A) yes

180) Intent mylntent = new Intent(IntentACTION_VIEW Uri.pars(“http://www.google.com”)); startActivity(myIntent)

A) myIntent is implicit Intent.

Android Interview Questions And Answers For 1 Year Experience

181) In android intent. The activity can be embedded inside of another activity that hosts gadgets is belonged to

A) CATEGORY_GADGET

182) Where we can create tables and columns to them, create views or triggers?

A) onCreate()

183) “Gingerbread” is nickname of which version?

A) Android versiov2.3.x

184) By default UI components made in the UI editor should have text defined in file?

A) string.xml

185) SQLite database save data in which storage?

A) Internal storage

186) How to set layout’s attribute programmatically in android?

A) Use LayoutParams class

187) What is base of all Sencha Touch component?

A) ExtComponent

188) Which method to display a dialog?

A) show()

189) How to change the main color of Sencha Touch application?

A) Change the $base-color variable in app.scss

190) Which activity class do you need to inherit to show Google map?

A) MapActivity class

Android Interview Programming Questions

191) What are 2 ways a Service can run?

A) Bounded and Unbounded

192) How to show or hide a Sencha Touch component?

A) Call .show() or .hide() method of component itself

193) When a dialog is requested for the first time, which method will Android call from your Activity?

A) onCreateDialog(int)

194) Do we need to declare all of Controller in app.js with Sencha Touch?

A) Yes

195) In android, normally SDCard is?

A) External storage

196) Which of the following is best choice for simple animations for your website?

A) JavaScript

197) Which statement is correct about web storage?

A) It is key/value data

198) Android UI is threadsafe? Is it true or false?

A) False

199) Do we need to register all of View classes in app.js with Sencha Touch?

A) No

200) Which class do we use for listening location update?

A) LocationManager class

Android Interview Questions For 2 Years Experience

201) How to make a TextView to be editable?

A) Either set its attribute editable =’true’ or Use EditText class instead of TextView class

202) What is NOT correct about Store in Sencha Touch?

A) Load data via a Proxy

203) How to define a new Sencha Touch class?

A) Use Extdefine()

204) If the action is ACTION_CALL. what the data field would be?

A) URI with the number to call

205) Android MapActivity is?

A) Base class with code to manage the boring necessities of any activity that displays a MapView

206) There are five different methods to store persistent data. They are: Shared Preferences. Internal Storage. External Storage. Network and __?

A) SQLite Database

207) What are location providers in Android?

A) GPS & Network

208) Android AsyncTask create new thread in background?

A) True

209) What is not true about the Android application lifecycle?

A) Each activity of an app is run in its own process

210) Intent myIntent = new Intent(this. ActivityTwo.class);?

A) myIntent is explicit Intent

Android Interview Questions With Answers

211) What is value on component’s attribute layout_widtlf and layout_heighl to display the component big enough to?

A) wrap_content

212) What is TRUE about localStorage?

A) It is never expired

213) How to listen to an event in Sencha Touch class?

A) Write event handler within listeners:{} body

214) Which method to open a Hap connection to an Uri?

A) url.openConnection()

215) Which statement is NOT correct about PhoneGap?

A) It doesn’t support for Java phone

216) Which are location providers in android?

A) GPS

217) How many CSS files can be included in a Sencha Touch project?

A) Many

218) You must declare all application components in Manifest file in this way?

A) <provider> elements for content providers

219) In class SQLiteOpenHelper class, there are 2 methods we should usually override. What are they?

A) onCreate() and onUpgrade()

220) Is the main thread called the UI thread?

A) Yes

Android Interview Questions And Answers For 2 Years Experience

221) If the action is ACTION_CALL, what the data field would be ?

A) URI with the number to call

222) Android Async Task create new thread in background?

A) true

223) Which of following is true?

A) myIntent is explicit intent

224) Which method to opena Http connection to an Uri?

A) url.openConnection()

225) Which are location provider in Android ?

A) LBS

226) How many css file can be included in a Sencha Touch project ?

A) many

227) How to set position of a Sencha Touch component?

A) all of above

228) In Android, which of the following statement is CORRECT to reload a layout?

A) setContentView(R.layout.some_layout)

229) In Android, which layout mode defines the positions of each component relative to each other?

A) RelativeLayout

230) Read the following content and answer the question?

A) SmsManager&lt

Android Developer Job Interview Questions

231) Does AsyncTask create new thread in background?

A) True

232) In Android, which manifest permission is needed when use GPS location?

A) ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION

233) How can you define the minimum version of Android required?

A) Using the minSdkVersion attribute in the AndroidMan

234) Toast is a class to display a message in Android. How to set position of a Toast?

A) Using setGravity()

235) In Android, what does dp unit stand for?

A) density-independent

236) In Android, which method you can use to obtain the path of the external storage?

A) getExternalStorageDirectory()

237) What is the permission you need to declare in AndroidManifes?

A) WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE

238) Given a table data (click to see the figure). And assume that this is on a device at 160 dpi?

A) dp * scaler = px

239) In Android, does Service create new thread in background?

A) False

240) To display a notification on upper left of Android screen, which of the following class you need to use?

A) NotificationManager + Notification

Android Based Interview Questions

241) You need to process when user clicks on a notification on upper left of Android screen?

A) PendingIntent

242) Which is the method you need to use to post a notification to be shown in the status bar?

A) notify(…)

243) To develop your own service in Android, what you need to do?

A) implements onStartCommand, onBind, onUnbind, onRebind, onCreate, onDestroy methods

244) To get data from Webserver to Android application, which of the following class you need to use to establish connection?

A) HttpURLConnection

245) What is the name of Android class do we need to use to build up an JSON object?

A) JSONObject

246) Assume that we have an Android object named stored in reader variable, and inside it has a child object named?

A) JSONObject mainObj = reader.getJSONObject(&amp;quot;main&amp;quot;);

247) In Android, can we change the GPS setting by write my own Java code?

A) False

248) When you need to use mp3 file in Android application, which folder you need to create and store mp3 file?

A) raw folder

249) Which of the following is NOT a right codename of Android version?

A) Eclair

250) What is the android:versionCode attribute in the AndroidManifest.xml file?

A) It is used to programmatically check if an application can be upgraded.

Android Interview Questions For 3 Year Experience

251) When you have two or more activities with the same INTENT FILTER action name, the Android OS will display a

A) True

252) Which of the following is the based class for the main application class in an Android application that has a user interface?

A) Activity

253) In Android, which is two location providers that you can use to obtain your position data?

A) LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER and LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER

254) In Android, the process technical to convert an address into its latitude and longitude is called?

A) Geocoding

255) What happen if the latitude is less than -90 or greater than 90?

A0 It returns an IllegalArgumentException

256) Given the following statements using openFileOutput function to store data into a file in Android?

A) The created file can be accessed by all the other applications at the same time.

257) How many activities are in focus at any time?

A) Just one

258) What is a change Gravity?

A) A tool that changes the linear alignment of a control so that is is aligned to the left, center, right top or bottom of an

259) What onListItemClick() function used for?

A) A method called when an item in a list is selected

260) What setListAdapter() function used for?

A) A command that projects your data to the onscreen list on your device by connecting the listActivity

Android Related Interview Questions

261) In Sencha Touch, app folder contains?

A) the Models, Views, Controllers and Stores for your app

262) Choose right kind of layouts supported in Sencha Touch?

A) Justify Layout

263) As discussed, there are 4 main components in Android application. And in AndroidManifest.xml file, you need to declare?

A) elements for configurations

264) Which shortcut key we can use to change orientation in an AVD simulator?

A) Ctrl+F11

265) In Android, what is contained within the XML files in layout folder?

A) The layouts and direction of screen of the app

266) What is Content Provider?

A) It is a means to share data between applications which are by default run in completely different space by Dalvik instances

267) What is Fragment?

A) A fragment can be displayed without be embedded in an activity.

268) In Android, what is the meaning of the following code in MainActivity class?

A) the main thread calls the UI thread

269) Sencha Touch is?

A) a Java framework

270) There is a kind of animation that using an XML file to define a sequence of pictures using?

A) Tween Animation

Android Interview Questions And Answers For 2 Years Experience

271) Given the following code AsyncHttpClient asynClient = new AsyncHttpClient()?

A) Yes, if it is not yet completed (success or failed)

271) PhoneGap uses HTML5, CSS, and __________ to write and deploy application.

A) JavaScript

272) Can PhoneGap work with Contacts data of mobile device?

A) true

273) Can PhoneGap framework support for playing audio?

A) true

274) When to use ASyncTask?

A) When connecting to external services for specific and short time consuming services

275) What’s Volley and what’s positive and negative with it?

A) An HTTP library that makes networking for the app easier.
Very good at handling multiplie network connections.
Not god for large download or streaming operations.

276) What types of permissions exists?

A) Normal permission – Permission that wont directly risk the user’s privacy

Dangerous permission – can give the app access to the user’s confidential data. I

277) What’s wake locks?

A) It puts the device suspended mode when the user aren’t using the device, to save battery time. If the app wants to do operations in the background without making the go to suspending mode it has request a wake lock from the system

278) What is Wake up sensor?

A) Sensor that will wake the Application Processor (AP). up from its suspended mode to report sensor events

279) What is None wake up sensor?

A) Sensors that doesn’t wake the AP. Instead the sensor event is queued in a FIFO queue

280) What is CryptoObject?

A) Wrapper class for the so called crypto object

Android Technical Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced

281) What is an implicit intent?

A) An implicit intent can specify an action that your app may not be able to do, but other apps on the phone likely could. Before launching this kind of intent, confirm that another app is able to perform the action like so:

// Verify that there are applications registered to handle this intent
// (resolveActivity returns null if none are registered)
if (sendIntent.resolveActivity(getPackageManager()) != null) {
startActivity(sendIntent);
}

282) What are the activity lifecyle callbacks?

A) onCreate()
onStart()
onResume()
onPause()
onStop()
onDestroy()

It’s best to clean up resources on onStop() and onPause(), since it’s not always guaranteed that onDestroy() will be called.

283) What are three common reasons to use an Intent?

A) To start an activity, start a service (one time operation such as downloading a file), or deliver a broadcast.

284) What is DDMS? Describe some of its capabilities.

A) DDMS is the Dalvik Debug Monitor Server that ships with Android. It provides a wide array of debugging features including:

port-forwarding services
screen capture
thread and heap information
network traffic tracking
incoming call and SMS spoofing
simulating network state, speed, and latency
location data spoofing

285) What is the relationship between the life cycle of an AsyncTask and an Activity? What problems can this result in? How can these problems be avoided?

A) Since the Async task is not tied to the lifecycle of the activity, you need to clean up an Async task if it is still running when an activity is destroyed, or it may lead to a memory leak or an IllegalArgumentException if the Async task tries to update the UI of an Activity that is no longer existing.

286) What is the difference between a fragment and an activity? Explain the relationship between the two.

A) Activity is a single, focused operation that a user can perform.
Activity implementations can make use of one or more fragments to make modular UI design, and scaling UI between small and large screens.

A fragment is essentially a modular section of an activity, with its own lifecycle and input events, and which can be added or removed at will. It is important to remember, though, that a fragment’s lifecycle is directly affected by its host activity’s lifecycle; i.e., when the activity is paused, so are all fragments in it, and when the activity is destroyed, so are all of its fragments.

287) What is difference between Serializable and Parcelable ? Which is best approach in Android ?

A) Serializable is a standard Java interface. You simply mark a class Serializable by implementing the interface, and Java will automatically serialize it in certain situations.

Parcelable is an Android specific interface where you implement the serialization yourself. It was created to be far more efficient than Serializable, and to get around some problems with the default Java serialization scheme.

288) What are two launch modes for activities?

A) A launch mode is a way to associate a new instance of an activity to the current task …you can do this either via manifest file or intent flags.

289) What is the difference between Service and IntentService? How is each used?

A) A service runs on the main thread, and an Intent service runs asynchronously.

290) How do you supply construction arguments into a Fragment?

A) Bundle, via Fragment.setArguments(Bundle) and retrieved via Fragment.getArguments(Bundle)

Android Interview Questions For Senior Developer

291) Which method is called only once in a fragment life cycle?

A) onAttach()

292) How to define a JSON Object from a String?

A) JSONObject climate = new JSONObject(jsonString)

Build a URI from a String called GITHUB_BASE_URL
Uri builtUri = Uri.parse(GITHUB_BASE_URL).buildUpon()
.appendQueryParameter(PARAM_QUERY, githubSearchQuery)
.appendQueryParameter(PARAM_SORT, sortBy)
.build();

return url;

293) How to Build a URL from URI?

A) URL url = null;
try {
url = new URL(builtUri.toString());
} catch (MalformedURLException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}

294) Where should we add permission to the applications?

A) AndroidManifest.xml

295) The correct sintaxis to add Internet Permission?

A) <uses-permission android:name=”android.permission.INTERNET” />

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Python Tutorial For Beginners With Examples – Learn Python In One Day

Python Tutorial For Beginners With Examples. Learn Python In One Day by following this blog post. Coding compiler has done it’s best to share this Python tutorial with examples. Let’s start learning Python programming in a day to get started with Python language. All the best for your future and happy python learning.

Python Tutorial For Beginners

The first question, what is Python? According to Guido van Rossum, the father of Python, Python is:

A high-level programming language whose core design philosophy is code readability and syntax that allows programmers to express their ideas with very little code.

For me, the primary reason to learn Python is that it is a language that can be gracefully programmed. It’s easy and natural to write code and implement my ideas.

What is Python Used For?

Another reason is that we can use Python in many places: data science, web development, machine learning, and so on, all can be developed using Python. Google, Quora, Pinterest, and Spotify all use Python for their backend Web development. Let’s learn about Python now.

Python Basics For Beginners

Here we go with learning Python in one day.

1. Python Variables

You can think of a variable as a word for storing a value. Let’s see an example.

It’s easy to define a variable in Python and assign it a value. If you want to store the number one to the variable “one,” let’s try it out:

In addition to an integer, we can also use the True / False, string, float and other data types.

 # booleanstrue_boolean = Truefalse_boolean = False# stringmy_name = "Leandro Tk"# floatbook_price = 15.80

 2. Python Control flow: conditional statement

” If ” uses an expression to determine whether a statement is True or False. If True, execute the code in if, as shown in the following example:

1
2
3
if True:
  print(“Hello Python If”)if 2 > 1:
  print(“2 is greater than 1”)

2 is larger than 1, so the print code is executed.

When the expression in ” if ” is false, the ” else ” statement will be executed.

1 is smaller than 2, so the code in ” else ” will be executed.

You can also use the “elif ” statement:

3. Python Loop and iterate

In Python, we can iterate in different ways. I will say while and for.

Python While Loop: While the statement is True, while the code block inside will be executed. So the code below prints 1 through 10.

The while loop needs a loop condition, and if condition, on is always true, it iterates all the time, with a loop condition of false when num’s value is 11.

Another piece of code can help you better understand the use of the while statement:

The loop condition is True so it iterates until it’s False.

Python For loop : You can apply the variable ” num ” on the block of code , and the “for” statement will iterate over it for you. This code will print the same code as in while : from 1 to 10.

Did you see? This is too simple. The range of i starts from 1 until the eleventh element (10 is the tenth element).

Python List: collection | array | data structure

Suppose you want to store the integer 1 in a variable, but you also want to store 2 and 3, 4, 5 …

Instead of using hundreds or thousands of variables, I have other ways to store these integers that I want to store? As you have already guessed, there are other ways to store them.

The list is a collection that can store a list of values (just like what you want to store), then let’s use it:

This is really easy. We created an array called my_integer and put the data in it.

Maybe you might ask, “How do I get the value in the array?”

Ask good. The list has a concept called indexing. The following table of the first element is index 0 (0). The second index is 1, and so on, you should understand.

In Python’s syntax, it is also good to understand:

If you do not want to save the whole number. You just want to save some strings, like your relative’s list of names. My look is similar to this:

Its principle is the same as storing an integer, very friendly.

We only learned how the index of a list works and I also need to tell you how to add an element to the list’s data structure (add an item to the list).

The most common way to add new data to the list is to splicing. Let’s take a look at how it is used:

Stitching super easy, you only need to put an element (such as “valid machine”) as the splicing parameters.

Well, the list of knowledge is enough, let’s take a look at the other data structures.

Python Dictionary: Key-Value Data Structure

Now we know that List is an indexed integer number set. But what if we do not use integer numbers as indexes? We can use some other data structures, such as numbers, strings or other types of indexes.

Let’s learn about this dictionaries data structure. A dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs. The dictionary is about this long:

Key is the index to value . How do we access the dictionary value ? You should guess, that is the use of key. Let’s try it out

We have a key (age) value (24) that uses a string as the key integer for value .

I created a dictionary about me that contains my name, nickname, and nationality. These attributes are the keys in the dictionary.

Just as we have learned of using an index to access a list, we also use an index (the key in the dictionary is an index) to access the value stored in the dictionary.

As we use the list, let’s learn how to add elements to the dictionary. The dictionary mainly points to the value of the key. The same is true when we add elements:

We only need to point a key in a dictionary to a vvalue. No hardship, right?

Python Iteration: Loop through the data structure

As we learned in the basics of Python, List iteration is simple. We Python developers usually use For loops. Let’s try it out

For each book on the shelf, we print ( can do anything ) to the console. Super easy and intuitive. This is the beauty of Python.

We can also use the for loop for the hash data structure, but we need to use the key:

The above is an example of how to use a For loop in a dictionary. For each key in the dictionary, we print out the value of key and key.

We named the two parameters key and value, but this is not necessary. We are free to name it. Let’s take a look:

You can see that we use the attribute as the key parameter in the dictionary, which has the same effect as using key naming. Really great!

Python Classes & Objects

Some theories:

Objects are representations of real-world entities, such as cars, dogs, or bicycles. These objects share two main features in common: data and behavior.

Cars have data such as the number of wheels, the number of doors and the seat space, and they can show their behavior: they can accelerate, stop, show how much fuel left, and many more.

We treat the data as attributes and behaviors in object-oriented programming. Again expressed as:

Data → Properties and Behaviors → Methods

The class is a blueprint to create a single object. In the real world, we often find many objects of the same type. For example, cars. All cars have the same structure and model (all with an engine, wheels, doors, etc.). Each car is constructed from the same blueprint and has the same components.

Python object-oriented programming model: ON

Python, as an object-oriented programming language, has the notion of classes and objects.

A class is a blueprint that is a model of the object.

So, a class is a model or a way to define properties and behaviors (as we discussed in the theory section). For example, a vehicle class has its own properties that define what kind of vehicle this object is. The attributes of a car are the number of wheels, energy type, seat capacity and a maximum speed of these.

With that in mind, let’s take a look at the syntax of Python’s classes :

Above the code, we use the class statement to define a class. Is not it easy?

An object is a class instantiation, which we can instantiate by class name.

Here, car is an object (or instantiation) of class Vehicle.

Remember the vehicle class has four attributes: the number of wheels, fuel tank type, seat capacity and maximum speed. When we create a new vehicle object to set all the attributes. So here, we define a class that accepts parameters when it’s initialized:

This init method. We call this a constructor. So when we create a vehicle object, we can define these properties. Imagine we like Tesla Model S, so we want to create an object of this type. 

It has four wheels, uses electric energy, five seats and a maximum speed of 250 kilometers (155 miles). Let’s start by creating an object like this :

Four + energy + five + maximum speed of 250 km.

All the properties have been set. But how do we access these property values? We send a message to the object to request that value from it. We call this method. It is the behavior of the object. Let’s achieve it:

This is the implementation of the two methods number_of_wheels and set_number_of_wheels. We call it getter & setter. Because the first function is to get the property value, the second is to set a new value for the property.

In Python, we can use @property (modifier) to define getters and setters. Let’s take a look at the actual code:

And we can use these methods as properties:

This is slightly different from the method definition. The method here is based on the property. For example, when we set the new number of tires, we do not regard these two as parameters, but set the value 2 to number_of_wheels. This is a way of writing python-style getter and setter code.

But we can also use this method for other things, such as the ” make_noise ” method. let us see:

When we call this method, it simply returns a string  VRRRRUUUUM. 

Python Package: Hide information

Encapsulation is a mechanism that limits direct access to object data and methods. At the same time, however, it makes it easier to manipulate data (object methods).

“Package can be used to hide data members and member functions in accordance with this definition, it means that the package. Objects inside an external view showing typically hidden in the object definition.” – Wikipedia

All internal representations of objects are hidden from the outside. Only the object itself can interact with its internal data.

First, we need to understand how open and closed instance variables and methods work.

Public instance variables

For the Python class, we can initialize a public instance variable in our constructor method. Let’s take a look at this one:

In this construction method:

Here, we apply the first_name value as a parameter to the public instance variables.

In the class:

Here, we do not need to first_name as a parameter, all instance objects have a class attribute initialized with TK.

Too cool, and now we have learned that we can use public instance variables and class properties. Another interesting thing about the public part is that we can manage the values of the variables. What do I mean? Our object can manage its variable values: Get and Set variable values.

Still in the Person class, we want to set another value for its first_name variable:

This is fine, we just set another value (kaio) for the first_name instance variable and update the value. It’s that simple. Because this is a public variable, we can do that.

Python Non-public instance variables

We do not use the term “private” here because all of the properties in Python are not really private (there is usually no unnecessary amount of work). -  PEP 8

As public instance variable(public instance variables), we can define non-public instance variable(non-public instance variables) inside the constructor or class.

The difference in the syntax is that for non-public instance variables(non-public instance variables), an underscore (_) is used before the variable name.

“Private ‘instance variables that are not accessible from inside the object do not exist in Python, however, there is a convention that most Python code will follow: underscore names (such as _spam) should be considered as Non-public part of API (whether function, method, or data member) “

Here is sample code:

Have you seen the email variable yet? This is how we define non-public variables:

We can access and update it. Non-public variables are just a matter of usage and should be treated as a non-public part of the API.

So we use a method within the class definition to implement this functionality. Let’s implement two methods (email and update_email) to deepen our understanding:

Now we can use these two methods to update and access non-public variables. Here is an example

  1. We initialized a new object using first_name TK and email [email protected]
  2. Use the method to access a non-public variable email and output it
  3. Try setting a new email outside the class
  4. We need to treat non-public variables as non-public parts of the API
  5. Use our instance method to update the non-public variables
  6. Success! We’ve updated it inside the class using helper methods.

Python Public method

For public methods, we can also use them in classes:

Let’s test it:

That’s fine – we have no problems using it in our class.

Python Non-public methods

But with a non-public method, we can not do that. If we want to implement the same Person class, we now use the underscore (_) show_age non-public method.

Now, we will try to invoke this non-public method with our object:

We can access and update it. The non-public method is just a convention and should be considered as a non-public part of the API.

Here’s an example of how we can use it:

Here’s a _get_age non-public method and a show_age public method. show_age can be used by our object (not in our class), while _get_age is only used in our class definition (in the show_age method). But again, this is usually the practice.

Python Package summary

Through the package, we can ensure that the internal representation of the object is hidden from the outside.

Python Inheritance: Behavior and Features

Some objects have something in common: their behavior and characteristics.

For example, I inherited some of my father’s features and behaviors. I inherited the characteristics of his eyes and hair, as well as his impatience and introverted behavior.

In object-oriented programming, a class can inherit the common characteristics (data) and behaviors (methods) of another class.

Let’s look at another example and implement it in Python.

Imagine the car. The number of wheels, seat capacity, and maximum speed are all attributes of a car. We can say that the ElectricCar class inherits these same properties from the normal Car class.

The realization of our Car class:

Once initialized, we can use all created instance variables. awesome.

In Python, we inherit the parent class as a child argument. An ElectricCar class can inherit our Car class.

It’s that simple. We do not need to implement any other method because this class has completed the inheritance of the parent class (inherited from the Car class). Let’s prove:

Thats beautiful. Original Source.

Other Python Tutorials

What is Python – A Beginners Guide

Advantages of Python Programming

Advantages of Python And Disadvantages of Python

Advantages of Python And Disadvantages of Python. Here in this blog post Coding compiler sharing a detailed article on python advantages and python disadvantages. Let’s start reading, happy learning.

Advantages of Python

  1. Easy Syntax
  2. Readability
  3. High-Level Language
  4. Object-oriented programming
  5. It’s Opensource and Free
  6. Cross-platform
  7. Widely Supported
  8. It’s Safe
  9. Batteries Included
  10. Extensible

Related Article: What is Python – A Beginners Guide

    Python Advantages

    Let’s discuss about Advantages of Python in detail.

    Easy Syntax of Python

    Python’s syntax is easy to learn, so both non-programmers and programmers can start programming right away.

Very Clear Readability of Python

Python’s syntax is very clear, so it is easy to understand program code. (Python is often referred to as “executable pseudo-code” because its syntax mostly follows the conventions used by programmers to outline their ideas without the formal verbosity of code in most programming languages.
In other words, syntax of Python is almost identical to the simplified “pseudo-code” used by many programmers to prototype and describe their solution to other programmers. Thus Python can be used to prototype and test code which is later to be implemented in other programming languages).

Python High-Level Language

Python looks more like a readable, human language than like a low-level language. This gives you the ability to program at a faster rate than a low-level language will allow you.

Python Object-oriented programming

Object-oriented programming allows you to create data structures that can be re-used, which reduces the amount of repetitive work that you’ll need to do. Programming languages usually define objects with namespaces, like class or def, and objects can edit themselves by using keyword, like this or self.
Most modern programming languages are object-oriented (such as Java, C++, and C#) or have support for OOP features (such as Perl version 5 and later). Additionally, object-oriented techniques can be used in the design of almost any non-trivial software and implemented in almost any programming or scripting language.
Python’s support for object-oriented programming is one of its greatest benefits to new programmers because they will be encountering the same concepts and terminology in their work environment. If you ever decide to switch languages or use any other for that fact, you’ll have a significant chance that you’ll be working with object-oriented programming.

Python Is Open-Source and Free

Python is both free and open-source. The Python Software Foundation distributes pre-made binaries that are freely available for use on all major operating systems called CPython. You can get CPython’s source-code, too. Plus, you can modify the source code and distribute as allowed by CPython’s license.

Python is a Cross-platform

Python runs on all major operating systems like Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X.

Python Widely Supported Programming Language

Python has an active support community with many websites, mailing lists, and USENET “netnews” groups that attract a large number of knowledgeable and helpful contributes.

Python is a Safe

Python doesn’t have pointers like other C-based languages, making it much more reliable. Along with that, errors never pass silently unless they’re explicitly silenced. This allows you to see and read why the program crashed and where to correct your error.

Python Batteries Included Language

Python is famous for being the “batteries are included” language. There are over 300 standard library modules which contain modules and classes for a wide variety of programming tasks.
For example the standard library contains modules for safely creating temporary files (named or anonymous), mapping files into memory (including use of shared and anonymous memory mappings), spawning and controlling sub-processes, compressing and decompressing files (compatible with gzip or PK-zip) and archives files (such as Unix/Linux “tar”).
Accessing indexed “DBM” (database) files, interfacing to various graphical user interfaces (such as the TK toolkit and the popular WxWindows multi-platform windowing system), parsing and maintaining CSV (comma-separated values) and “.cfg” or “.ini” configuration files (similar in syntax to the venerable WIN.INI files from MS-DOS and MS-Windows), for sending e-mail, fetching and parsing web pages, etc. It’s possible, for example, to create a custom web server in Python using less than a dozen lines of code, and one of the standard libraries, of course.

Python is Extensible

In addition to the standard libraries there are extensive collections of freely available add-on modules, libraries, frameworks, and tool-kits. These generally conform to similar standards and conventions.
For example, almost all of the database adapters (to talk to almost any client-server RDBMS engine such as MySQL, Postgres, Oracle, etc) conform to the Python DBAPI and thus can mostly be accessed using the same code. So it’s usually easy to modify a Python program to support any database engine.

Disadvantages of Python

  1. Slower Speed
  2. Too Easy

Python is Slower Speed

Python is executed by an interpreter instead of compilation, which causes it to be slower than if it was compiled and then executed. However, for most applications, it is by far fast enough. One Python idiom is “Speed isn’t a problem until it’s a problem.”

Python is Too Easy

When one has mastered Python one can become so accustomed to its features, particularly its dynamic late-binding model and its many libraries, that it can be difficult to learn and become comfortable in other programming languages.
Specifically, the need to declare variable “types” and to “cast” values from one type to another and the syntactic requirements for adding semi-colons and curly braces used by other programming languages can be viewed as tedious or onerous by experienced Python programmers.
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Mulesoft Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced

Mulesoft Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced 2018. Here Coding compiler presenting a list of 25 Mule ESB interview questions and answers for experienced and freshers. This list of Mulesoft questions will help you to understand what kind of questions will be asked in Mule ESB interviews. All the best for your Mulesoft job interview and happy learning.

Mulesoft Interview Questions

  1. What is Mulesoft?
  2. What is Mule ESB?
  3. What is MuleSoft Anypoint platform used for?
  4. Is MuleSoft open source?
  5. What is Mulesoft used for?
  6. Is Mulesoft a middleware?
  7. Why do we need ESB?
  8. What are Web Services?
  9. What is the use of Web service?
  10. What are the different types of Web services?
  11. What is a REST web service?
  12. What are the advantages of RESTful web services?
  13. What is SOAP Web Service?
  14. What are the advantages of Soap Web Services?
  15. What is the difference between SOAP and REST?

Mulesoft Interview Questions And Answers

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 1) What is Mulesoft?

Answer ) MuleSoft provides the most widely used integration platform (Mule ESB & CloudHub) for connecting SaaS & enterprise applications in the cloud and on-premise.

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 2) What is Mule ESB?

Answer ) Mule ESB is the runtime engine of Anypoint Platform, is a lightweight Java-based enterprise service bus (ESB) and integration platform that allows developers to connect applications together quickly and easily, enabling them to exchange data.

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 3) What is MuleSoft Anypoint platform used for?

Answer) MuleSoft’s Anypoint Platform of integration products is designed to tie together software as a service (SaaS) and on-premises software.

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 4) Is MuleSoft open source?

Answer ) MuleSoft is open source technology and it provides open source SOA middleware and related products.

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 5) What is Mulesoft used for?

Answer ) Mulesoft is an integration platform that allows developers to connect applications together quickly and easily, enabling them to exchange data.

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 6) Is Mulesoft a middleware?

Answer ) Mule Enterprise Service Bus is a middleware technology that quickly, easily, and securely connects the enterprise. Unlike typical middleware software, Mule as an ESB is a Java-based middleware solution that is easy to use and easy to scale.

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 7) Why do we need ESB?

Answer ) ESB, a middleware technology, is a Bus-like architecture used to integrate heterogeneous systems. In ESB, each application is independent and yet able to communicate with other systems. It, thus, prevents scalability issues and ensures that communication happens only through it.

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 8) What are Web Services?

Answer ) Web service is a functionality or a small piece of program in any programming language that can be accessed over HTTP. Message format can be XML or JSON or any other program as long as the other programs can understand and communicate.

A Web service can be of synchronous or asynchronous type. Any web service has a server-client relationship and it can have multiple clients.

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 9) What is the use of Web service?

Answer ) Web services are XML-based information exchange systems that use the Internet for direct application-to-application interaction. These systems can include programs, objects, messages, or documents. A web service is a collection of open protocols and standards used for exchanging data between applications or systems.

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 10) What are the different types of Web services?

Answer ) There are mainly two types of web services.

  • SOAP web services.
  • RESTful web services.

Mule ESB Interview Questions

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 11) What is a REST web service?

Answer ) Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style that specifies constraints, such as the uniform interface, that if applied to a web service induce desirable properties, such as performance, scalability, and modifiability, that enable services to work best on the Web.

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 12) What are the advantages of RESTful web services?

Answer ) Advantages of RESTful Web Services

Fast: RESTful Web Services are fast because there is no strict specification like SOAP. It consumes less bandwidth and resource.

Language and Platform independent: RESTful web services can be written in any programming language and executed in any platform.

Can use SOAP: RESTful web services can use SOAP web services as the implementation.

Permits different data format: RESTful web service permits different data format such as Plain Text, HTML, XML and JSON.

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 13) What is SOAP Web Service?

Answer ) SOAP stands for Simple Object Access Protocol. It is a XML-based protocol for accessing web services. SOAP is a W3C recommendation for communication between two applications.

SOAP is XML based protocol. It is platform independent and language independent. By using SOAP, you will be able to interact with other programming language applications.

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 14) What are the advantages of Soap Web Services?

Answer ) WS Security: SOAP defines its own security known as WS Security.

Language and Platform independent: SOAP web services can be written in any programming language and executed in any platform.

Disadvantages of Soap Web Services:

Slow: SOAP uses XML format that must be parsed to be read. It defines many standards that must be followed while developing the SOAP applications. So it is slow and consumes more bandwidth and resource.

WSDL dependent: SOAP uses WSDL and doesn’t have any other mechanism to discover the service.

Mule ESB Interview Questions # 15) What is the difference between SOAP and REST?

Answer ) SOAP -> REST
1. SOAP is a protocol. -> REST is an architectural style.
2. SOAP stands for Simple Object Access Protocol. -> REST stands for REpresentational State Transfer.
3. SOAP can’t use REST because it is a protocol.  -> REST can use SOAP web services because it is a concept and can use any protocol like HTTP, SOAP.
4. SOAP uses services interfaces to expose the business logic.  -> REST uses URI to expose business logic.
5. SOAP defines standards to be strictly followed. -> REST does not define too much standards like SOAP.
6. SOAP defines standards to be strictly followed. -> REST does not define too much standards like SOAP.
7. SOAP requires more bandwidth and resource than REST. -> REST requires less bandwidth and resource than SOAP.
8. SOAP defines its own security. -> RESTful web services inherit security measures from the underlying transport.
9. SOAP permits XML data format only. -> REST permits different data format such as Plain text, HTML, XML, JSON etc.
10. SOAP is less preferred than REST. -> REST more preferred than SOAP.

Mule ESB Interview Questions And Answers

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 16) What is a Web service API?

Answer ) An API (Application Programming Interface) is the means by which third parties can write code that interfaces with other code. A Web Service is a type of API, one that almost always operates over HTTP (though some, like SOAP, can use alternate transports, like SMTP).

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 17) What is RAML?

Answer ) RAML stands for RESTful API Modeling Language is a YAML-based language for describing RESTful APIs. It provides all the information necessary to describe RESTful or practically RESTful APIs.
RAML is similar to WSDL, it contains endpoint URL, request/response schema, HTTP methods and query and URI parameter.

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 18) Why we use RAML?

Answer) RAML helps client know, what the service is and how all the operations can be invoked. RAML helps the developer in creating the initial structure of this API. RAML can also be used for documentation purpose.

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 19) What are the different types of variables in Mule ESB?

Answer ) The different types of variables in Mule ESB are:

  • Flow Variable
  • Session Variable
  • Record Variable

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 20) What are the various types of Exception Handling in Mule ESB?

Answer ) The types of exception handling in Mule ESB are:

  1. Default Exception Handling
  2. Global Exception Handling
  3. Catch Exception Handling
  4. Choice Exception Handling

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 21) What are the Flow Processing Strategies?

Answer ) Synchronous Flow Processing Strategy, Queued Flow Processing Strategy, Asynchronous Flow Processing Strategy, Thread Per Processing Strategy, Queued Asynchronous Flow Processing Strategy, Non-blocking Flow Processing Strategy, Custom Processing Strategy, Rollback Exception Handling.

Advanced Mulesoft Interview Questions For Experienced

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 22) What is caching and why to use it?

Answer ) Caching is a concept with is used to store frequently used data in the memory, file system or database which saves processing time and load if it would have to be accessed from original source location every time.

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 23) What is Mule Cache Scope and what are its storage types?

Answer ) Caching in Mule ESB can be done by Mule Cache Scope. Mule Cache Scope has 3 storage types –

In-memory: This store the data inside system memory. The data stored with In-memory is non-persistent which means in case of API restart or crash, the data been cached will be lost.

Configuration Properties:

  • Store Name
  • Maximum number of entries
  • TTL (Time to live)
  • Expiration Interval

Managed-store: This stores the data in a place defined by ListableObjectStore. The data stored with Managed-store is persistent which means in case of API restart or crash, the data been cached will no be lost.

Configuration Properties:

  • Store Name
  • Maximum number of entries
  • TTL (Time to live)
  • Expiration Interval
  • Persistence (true/false)

Simple-test-file-store: This stores the data in a file. The data stored with Simple-test-file-store configuration is persistent which means in case of API restart or crash, the data been cached will no be lost.

Configuration Properties:

  • Store Name
  • Maximum number of entries
  • TTL (Time to live)
  • Expiration Interval
  • Persistence (true/false)
  • Name and location of the file

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 24) What are Flow Processing Strategies?

Answer ) Flow processing strategies in Mulesoft are:

  • Synchronous Flow Processing Strategy
  • Queued Flow Processing Strategy
  • Asynchronous Flow Processing Strategy
  • Thread Per Processing Strategy
  • Queued Asynchronous Flow Processing Strategy
  • Non-blocking Flow Processing Strategy
  • Custom Processing Strategy

Mulesoft Interview Questions # 25) How can we create and consume SOAP service in Mule?

Answer ) Creating SOAP Service – We can create a SOAP service same as we create Mule Project With RAML, the only change is instead of RAML we need to import Concert WSDL. Consuming SOAP Service – We can use Web Service Consumer or CXF component in our mule flow to access/consume SOAP service.

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What is Python? – What is Python Used For?

What is Python? – What is Python Used For? A Comprehensive Guide on Python for beginners. Here in this blog post Coding compiler sharing, complete beginners guide on Python programming. After going through this article you will understand exactly what is Python language, what are the uses of Python and what it used for. Let’s start reading about Python. Happy learning.

What is Python?

Python is a general-purpose programming language which can be used for a wide variety of applications. A great language for beginners because of its readability and other structural elements designed to make it easy to understand, Python is not limited to basic usage. In fact, it powers some of the world’s most complex applications and website.

What is Python Programming?

Python is an interpreted language, meaning that programs written in Python don’t need to be compiled in advance in order to run, making it easy to test small snippets of code and making code written in Python easier to move between platforms. Since Python is most operating systems in common use, Python is a universal language found in a variety of different applications.

Who Invented Python?

First developed in the late 80s by Guido van Rossum, Python is currently in its third version, released in 2008, although the second version originally released in 2000 is still in common usage.

Why use Python?

There are several reasons why Python could be a good choice for your next programming project, whether it’s your first attempt at coding or if you’re a seasoned developer looking for a new frontier.

Perhaps most importantly, Python has an enormous user community. This means that no matter what problem you’re trying to solve, chances are there is already strong documentation, tutorials, guides, and examples to help you along your way.

There are numerous integrated development environments and other development tools to choose from, and thousands of open source packages available to extend Python to do just about anything you can think of.

Related Article: What is Machine Learning?

Integrated Development Environments For Python

Benefits of Python

Python is widely used programming language and it is used by big companies like Google, Pinterest, Instagram, Disney, Yahoo!, Nokia, IBM, and many other big companies uses this Python language for their applications.
The Raspberry Pi majorly relies on Python as it’s main programming language too. Learning Python can increase your chances of reaching more hieghts in your career.
Other benefits include:
  1. Python can be used to develop prototypes, and quickly because it is so easy to work with and read.
  2. Most automation, data mining, and big data platforms rely on Python.
  3. Python allows for a more productive coding environment than massive languages like C# and Java. It will save the time of developers.
  4. Python is easy to read and write, even if you’re not a skilled programmer. Anyone can begin working with the Python programming language, all you have to do is practice. Practice makes perfect in Python.
  5. Python powers Django, a complete and open source web application framework.
  6. Python has a massive support from the community across the globe.

What is Python used for?

Python’s ease of use and compatibility across a variety of operating systems makes it an ideal language for a number of uses. Many complex websites either currently or historically have used Python to power their back ends, from YouTube to Instagram to Reddit, and thousands of other well-known examples. But Python isn’t only a web language.

Python is the primary language used for the massive cloud computing project OpenStack, powering private and public clouds in data centers all over the world.

It’s also used to write desktop software, like Calibre, OpenShot, and the original client for BitTorrent. Many application written in other languages, such as Blender, allow for scripting by users in Python. It’s also a popular language for machine learning, scientific, statistical, mathematical, and other types of specialized computing.

Related Article: What is Robotic Process Automation?

Is Python open source?

The Python language itself is managed by the Python Software Foundation, who offer a reference implementation of Python, called, CPython, under an open source license. You can even download the Python source code.

Besides the Python implementation itself is open source, many open source projects make use of Python, and Python has many libraries available for developers under open source licenses.

43 JSON Interview Questions And Answers 2019

JSON Interview Questions And Answers 2019. Here Coding compiler sharing a list of JSON interview questions & answers for freshers and experienced. This list JSON questions will help you to crack your next JSON job interview. All the best for your future and happy learning.

JSON Interview Questions

  1. What does JSON stand for?
  2. What is JSON?
  3. What programming languages supported by JSON?
  4. Is JSON is a language?
  5. What are the properties of JSON?
  6. Why do we use JSON?
  7. What is JSON data?
  8. What is the difference between XML and JSON?
  9. Why JSON format is better than XML?
  10. Is JSON markup language?

JSON Interview Questions And Answers

JSON Interview Questions # 1) What does JSON stand for?

Answer) JSON stands for “JavaScript Object Notation”.

JSON Interview Questions # 2) What is JSON?

Answer) JSON is a lightweight data-interchange format. It is easy for humans to read and write. It is easy for machines to parse and generate. It is based on a subset of the JavaScript Programming Language, Standard ECMA.

JSON Interview Questions # 3) What programming languages supported by JSON?

Answer) JSON is a text format that is completely language independent but uses conventions that are familiar to programmers of the C-family of languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python, and many others.

JSON Interview Questions # 4) Is JSON is a language?

Answer) JSON is a data format. It could be classified as a language, but not a programming language. Its relationship to JavaScript is that it shares its syntax (more or less) with a subset of JavaScript literals.

JSON Interview Questions # 5) What are the properties of JSON?

Answer) These properties make JSON an ideal data-interchange language.

JSON is built on two structures:

A collection of name/value pairs. In various languages, this is realized as an object, record, struct, dictionary, hash table, keyed list, or associative array.

An ordered list of values. In most languages, this is realized as an array, vector, list, or sequence.

These are universal data structures. Virtually all modern programming languages support them in one form or another. It makes sense that a data format that is interchangeable with programming languages also be based on these structures.

JSON Interview Questions For Freshers

JSON Interview Questions # 6) Why do we use JSON?

Answer) The JSON format is often used for serializing and transmitting structured data over a network connection. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, serving as an alternative to XML.

JSON Interview Questions # 7) What is JSON data?

Answer) JSON, or JavaScript Object Notation, is a minimal, readable format for structuring data. In JSON data is nothing but a information. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, as an alternative to XML.

JSON Interview Questions # 8) What is the difference between XML and JSON?

Answer) The fundamental difference, which no other answer seems to have mentioned, is that XML is a markup language (as it actually says in its name), whereas JSON is a way of representing objects (as also noted in its name). This is what makes markup languages so useful for representing documents.

JSON Interview Questions # 9) Why JSON format is better than XML?

Answer) JSON and XML used different formats. When compared both JSON is easy to write and use it applications then XML. The XML format can also be determined by the XML DTD or XML Schema (XSL) and can be tested.

The JSON a data-exchange format which is getting more popular as the JavaScript applications possible format. Basically this is an object notation array. JSON has a very simple syntax so can be easily learned.

JSON Interview Questions # 10) Is JSON markup language?

Answer) JSON is like XML in that it is used to structure data in a text format and is commonly used to exchange data over the Internet. JSON is not a markup language. JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data-interchange format. It is easy for humans to read and write.

Top JSON Interview Questions

11) What is JSON Text?

Answer) A JSON text is a sequence of tokens formed from Unicode code points that conforms to the JSON value grammar. The set of tokens includes six structural tokens, strings, numbers, and three literal name tokens.

The six structural tokens:
[ U+005B left square bracket
{ U+007B left curly bracket
] U+005D right square bracket
} U+007D right curly bracket
: U+003A colon
, U+002C comma

These are the three literal name tokens:
true U+0074 U+0072 U+0075 U+0065
false U+0066 U+0061 U+006C U+0073 U+0065
null U+006E U+0075 U+006C U+006C

Insignificant whitespace is allowed before or after any token. Whitespace is any sequence of one or more of the following code points: character tabulation (U+0009), line feed (U+000A), carriage return (U+000D), and space (U+0020). Whitespace is not allowed within any token, except that space is allowed in strings.

JSON Interview Questions # 12) What is JSON Value?

Answer) A JSON value can be an object, array, number, string, true, false, or null.

13) What is JSON Syntax?

A) JSON syntax is derived from JavaScript object notation syntax. Data is in name/value pairs. Data is separated by commas. Curly braces hold objects. Square brackets hold arrays.

JSON Interview Questions # 14) What is JSON Value?

Answer) In JSON, value holds some data. A value can be a string in double quotes, or a number, or true or false or null, or an object or an array. These structures can be nested.

Values in JSON must be one of the following data types:

  • a string
  • a number
  • an object (JSON object)
  • an array
  • a boolean
  • null

15) What is JSON Array?

Answer) An array structure is a pair of square bracket tokens surrounding zero or more values. An array is an ordered collection of values. An array begins with [ (left bracket) and ends with ] (right bracket). Values are separated by , (comma).

The values are separated by commas. The JSON syntax does not define any specific meaning to the ordering of the values. However, the JSON array structure is often used in situations where there is some semantics to the ordering.

Interview Quetions And Answers on JSON

JSON Interview Questions # 16) What is Number in JSON?

Answer) JSON Numbers – A number is very much like a C or Java number, except that the octal and hexadecimal formats are not used. A number is a sequence of decimal digits with no superfluous leading zero.

It may have a preceding minus sign (U+002D). It may have a fractional part prefixed by a decimal point (U+002E). It may have an exponent, prefixed by e (U+0065) or E (U+0045) and optionally + (U+002B) or – (U+002D). The digits are the code points U+0030 through U+0039.

Numeric values that cannot be represented as sequences of digits (such as Infinity and NaN) are not permitted.

17) What is JSON String?

Answer) A string is a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters, wrapped in double quotes, using backslash escapes. A character is represented as a single character string. A string is very much like a C or Java string.

A string is a sequence of Unicode code points wrapped with quotation marks (U+0022). All code points may be placed within the quotation marks except for the code points that must be escaped: quotation mark (U+0022), reverse solidus (U+005C), and the control characters U+0000 to U+001F. There are two-character escape sequence representations of some characters.

\” represents the quotation mark character (U+0022).
\\ represents the reverse solidus character (U+005C).
\/ represents the solidus character (U+002F).
\b represents the backspace character (U+0008).
\f represents the form feed character (U+000C).
\n represents the line feed character (U+000A).
\r represents the carriage return character (U+000D).
\t represents the character tabulation character (U+0009).

JSON Interview Questions # 18) What is JSON object?

Answer) An object is an unordered set of name/value pairs. An object begins with { (left brace) and ends with } (right brace). Each name is followed by : (colon) and the name/value pairs are separated by , (comma).

19) What is JSON RPA Java?

Answer) JSON-RPC is a simple remote procedure call protocol similar to XML-RPC although it uses the lightweight JSON format instead of XML (so it is much faster).

JSON Interview Questions # 20) What is a JSON parser?

Answer) JSON parser to parse JSON object and MAINTAIN comments. By using JSON, when receiving data from a web server, the data should be always in a string format. We use JSON.parse() to parse the data and it becomes a JavaScript object.

The JSON.parse() method parses a JSON string, constructing the JavaScript value or object described by the string. An optional reviver function can be provided to perform a transformation on the resulting object before it is returned.

Advanced JSON Interview Questions

21) Which browser provides native JSON support?

Answer) All modern browsers support native JSON encoding/decoding (Internet Explorer 8+, Firefox 3.1+, Safari 4+, and Chrome 3+). Basically, JSON.parse(str) will parse the JSON string in str and return an object, and JSON.stringify(obj) will return the JSON representation of the object obj.

JSON Interview Questions # 22) What is the difference between JSON parse and JSON Stringify?

Answer) JSON.stringify() is to create a JSON string out of an object/array. They are the inverse of each other. JSON.stringify() serializes a JS object into a JSON string, whereas JSON.parse() will deserialize a JSON string into a JS object.

23) What is the MIME type of JSON?

Answer) The MIME media type for JSON text is application/json . The default encoding is UTF-8.

JSON Interview Questions # 24) What is the use of JSON Stringify?

Answer) The JSON.stringify() method converts a JavaScript value to a JSON string, optionally replacing values if a replacer function is specified, or optionally including only the specified properties if a replacer array is specified.

25) What does JSON parse do?

Answer) The JSON.parse() method parses a JSON string, constructing the JavaScript value or object described by the string. An optional reviver function can be provided to perform a transformation on the resulting object before it is returned.

JSON Interview Questions # 26) What is serialization in Javascript?

Answer) The serialize() method creates a URL encoded text string by serializing form values. You can select one or more form elements (like input and/or text area), or the form element itself. The serialized values can be used in the URL query string when making an AJAX request.

27) What is Polyfill?

Answer) The JSON object is not supported in older browsers. We can work around this by inserting a piece of code at the beginning of your scripts, allowing use of JSON object in implementations which do not natively support it (like Internet Explorer 6) is called Polyfill.

JSON Interview Questions # 28) What is toJSON() method in JOSN?

Answer) The toJSON() method returns a string representation of the Date object.

29) What is JSONP?

Answer) JSONP stands for JSON with Padding. JSONP is a method for sending JSON data without worrying about cross-domain issues. JSONP does not use the XMLHttpRequest object. JSONP uses the <script> tag instead.

JSON Interview Questions # 30) What is the difference between JSON and JSONP?

Answer) JSONP is a simple way to overcome browser restrictions when sending JSON responses from different domains from the client. But the practical implementation of the approach involves subtle differences that are often not explained clearly. Here is a simple tutorial that shows JSON and JSONP side by side.

JSON Interview Questions For Experienced

31) What is serialization and deserialization in JSON?

Answer) JSON is a format that encodes objects in a string. Serialization means to convert an object into that string, and deserialization is its inverse operation. When transmitting data or storing them in a file, the data are required to be byte strings, but complex objects are seldom in this format.

JSON Interview Questions # 32) What is serialization of an object?

Answer) To serialize an object means to convert its state to a byte stream so that the byte stream can be reverted back into a copy of the object.

33) What is the use of JSON in Java?

Answer) The Java API for JSON Processing provides portable APIs to parse, generate, transform, and query JSON. JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight, text-based, language-independent data exchange format that is easy for humans and machines to read and write.

JSON Interview Questions # 34) Why do we use JSON in PHP?

Answer) A common use of JSON is to read data from a web server, and display the data in a web page. This chapter will teach you how to exchange JSON data between the client and a PHP server.

35) What is JSON Formatter?

Answer) The JSON Formatter & Validator helps debugging JSON data by formatting and validating JSON data so that it can easily be read by human beings.

JSON Interview Questions # 36) What is JSON Viewer?

Answer) JSON Viewer – Convert JSON Strings to a Friendly Readable Format.

37) What is JSON Validator?

Answer) The JSON Validator helps debugging JSON data by formatting and validating JSON data so that it can easily be read by human beings.

JSON Interview Questions # 38) Why do we use JSON in Android?

JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation.It is an independent data exchange format and is the best alternative for XML.

Android provides four different classes to manipulate JSON data. These classes are JSONArray,JSONObject,JSONStringer and JSONTokenizer.

39) Why do we use JSON in Python?

Answer) Python programming language is used to encode and decode JSON objects.

Python encode() function encodes the Python object into a JSON string representation.

Python decode() function decodes a JSON-encoded string into a Python object.

JSON Interview Questions & Answers

JSON Interview Questions # 40) What is JSON in JavaScript?

Answer) JSON is derived from the JavaScript programming language, it is a natural choice to use as a data format in JavaScript. JSON, short for JavaScript Object Notation.

41) What is JSON Schema?

Answer) JSON Schema is a specification for JSON based format for defining the structure of JSON data.

JSON Interview Questions # 42) What are the advantages of JOSN?

Answer)

  • It is used while writing JavaScript based applications that includes browser extensions and websites.
  • JSON format is used for serializing and transmitting structured data over network connection.
  • It is primarily used to transmit data between a server and web applications.
  • Web services and APIs use JSON format to provide public data.
  • It can be used with modern programming languages.

43) Can you write an example code in JSON?

Answer) The following example shows how to use JSON to store information related to books based on their topic and edition.

{
"book": [
 
{
"id":"01",
"language": "Java",
"edition": "third",
"author": "Herbert Schildt"
},
 
{
"id":"07",
"language": "C++",
"edition": "second"
"author": "E.Balagurusamy"
}
]
}

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