Blockchain Interview Questions And Answers 2018

Blockchain Interview Questions And Answers 2018. Here Coding compiler sharing a list of 20 interview questions on Blockchain. These Blockchain questions were asked in various interviews conducted by top MNC companies and prepared by Blockchain experts. We are sure that these advanced Blockchain questions will help you to crack your next Blockchain job interview. All the best for your future and happy learning.

Blockchain Interview Questions

  1. What is Blockchain?
  2. What does Blockchain do?
  3. What are the features of Blockchain?
  4. Why do we need decentralized systems?
  5. Benefits of Blockchain Technology?
  6. What are the benefits of the distributed ledger?
  7. What are confirmations on the Blockchain?
  8. What is a hash on the Blockchain?
  9. What is a Blockchain client?
  10. What is a nonce in a Blockchain?
  11. What is a Node in Blockchain?
  12. What are Smart Contracts?
  13. What is a block in Blockchain?
  14. What is block time in Blockchain?
  15. What is the hard fork?
  16. What are the types of Blockchains?

Blockchain Interview Questions And Answers

1) What is Blockchain?

A) A blockchain is a digitized, decentralized, public ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions. Constantly growing as ‘completed’ blocks (the most recent transactions) are recorded and added to it in chronological order, it allows market participants to keep track of digital currency transactions without central recordkeeping.

2) What does Blockchain do?

A) Blockchain is, quite simply, a digital, decentralized ledger that keeps a record of all transactions that take place across a peer-to-peer network.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 3) What are the features of Blockchain?

A) The key features of blockchain are,

  • Distributed Database – Information stored on a blockchain exists as a shared and continually reconciled database.
  • Decentralized Systems – Decentralized systems enables users to store their assets in a network that can be accessed over the Internet.
  • Distributed Ledger – It provides information of all the digital transactions and the users who have done the digital transactions ever.
  • Safer and Secure Ecosystem – Due to its incorruptible digital ledger of economic transactions that can be programmed to record digital transactions provides safer and secure ecosystem.

4) Why do we need decentralized systems? Benefits of Blockchain Technology?

A) Decentralization benefits in various ways they are:

Entitle users: Decentralized systems enables users to keep control of all their digital transactions.

Fault tolerance: Decentralized systems helps in controlling fault tolerance because they are less likely to fail accidentally.

Durability and robustness: Blockchain doesn’t contain centralized system. It’s distributed and it’s very hard to attack and more expensive to destroy or manipulate.

Free from frauds: It’s very much tough in decentralized systems to commit frauds and scams to benefit from the system.

Faster transaction time: Blockchain and decentralized technology enable users to do transactions faster and reduce time to minutes when compared to normal bank transactions.

Lower cost for transactions: Decentralized systems like Blockchain get rid of third-party intermediaries and transaction costs, and service charger for exchanging assets. This greatly reduces the transaction fees and benefits users.

Provides lucidity: Blockchain is very transparent technology, the data can be publicly viewable, and all transactions can’t be altered or deleted.

Data authenticity: In a decentralized system like blockchain data is complete, consistent, timely, accurate, and widely available over the network.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 5) What are the benefits of the distributed ledger?

A) As we know Blockchain is a public ledger and it contains the information like all the participants and all the digital transactions that have ever been executed. There are many advantages of public ledger, they are:

Fraud prevention: In Blockchain data is decentralized and ledger data distributed across the multiple nodes. If there is any unauthorized changes to ledger data, Blockchain technology responds very well and prevents it. Ledger data can’t be changed and it prevents any kind of frauds.

Get rid of multiple ledgers: Blockchain distributed ledger technology helps organizations in maintaining all their transaction data into a single ledger, it reduces the complications of having multiple ledgers.

Ownership Assurance: Distributed ledgers can enable new ways of assuring ownership to the digital assets, goods and intellectual property.

Eliminates Mediatory: Blockchain eliminates mediatory and reduces the transaction time for settlements with keep track of everything in ledger in a secured way.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 6) What are confirmations on the Blockchain?

A) Bitcoin Confirmations. Roughly every ten minutes, a new block is created and added to the blockchain through the mining process. This block verifies and records any new transactions. The transactions are then said to have been confirmed by the Bitcoin network.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 7) What is a hash on the Blockchain?

A) Signatures are a fundamental part of blockchains. Similar to signing a check, cryptographic signatures determine which transactions are valid. Signatures are generated from a hash of data to be signed, and a private key. Transaction hashes are highly visible in a blockchain.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 8) What is a Blockchain client?

A) A Blockchain client is referred to any node able to parse and verify the blockchain, its smart contracts and everything related. It also allows you/provides interfaces to create transactions and mine blocks which is the key for any blockchain interaction.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 9) What is a nonce in a Blockchain?

A) In cryptography, a nonce is an arbitrary number that can only be used once. It is similar in spirit to a nonce word, hence the name. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 10) What is a Node in Blockchain?

A) In Blockchain, Node is a computer connected to the blockchain network using a client that performs the task of validating and relaying transactions) gets a copy of the blockchain, which gets downloaded automatically upon joining the blockchain network.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 11) What are Smart Contracts?

A) Smart contracts help you exchange money, property, shares, or anything of value in a transparent, conflict-free way while avoiding the services of a middleman.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 12) What is a block in Blockchain?

A) Blocks hold batches of valid transactions that are hashed and encoded into a Merkle tree. Each block includes the cryptographic hash of the prior block in the blockchain, linking the two. The linked blocks form a chain. This iterative process confirms the integrity of the previous block, all the way back to the original genesis block.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 13) What is block time in Blockchain?

A) The block time is the average time it takes for the network to generate one extra block in the blockchain.[38] Some blockchains create a new block as frequently as every five seconds. By the time of block completion, the included data becomes verifiable.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 14) What is the hard fork?

A) A hard fork is a rule change such that the software validating according to the old rules will see the blocks produced according to the new rules as invalid. In case of a hard fork, all nodes meant to work in accordance with the new rules need to upgrade their software.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 15) What are the types of Blockchains?

A) There are three types of Blockchain networks are available, they are, Public Blockchains, Private Blockchains and Consortium Blockchains.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 16) Explain about Public Blockchains?

A) A public blockchain has absolutely no access restrictions. Anyone with an internet connection can send transactions to it as well as become a validator

Blockchain Interview Questions # 17) Explain Private blockchains?

A) A private blockchain is a permission. One cannot join it unless invited by the network administrators. Participant and validator access is restricted.

Blockchain Interview Questions # 18) Explain Consortium Blockchains?

A) A consortium blockchain is often said to be semi-decentralized. It, too, is permission but instead of a single organization controlling it, a number of companies might each operate a node on such a network.

19) What are the different types of records in Blockchain technology?

A) There are two different types of records available in Blockchain, they are,

  1. Block Records
  2. Transactional Records

20) What is the difference between the distributed database and traditional database?

A) There are many differences between distributed database and traditional database, they are,

Operations in Distributed Database (Blockchain) and Traditional Database

Blockchain Distributed Database – In blockchain, we can store data but there is no chance for edit and delete.
Traditional Database – In the traditional database, we can perform CRUD operations.

Replication in Blockchain Vs Traditional Database

Blockchain – There is a full replication of block on every peer of the blockchain.
Traditional – Here we can have master-slave multi-master.

The consensus in Blockchain Vs Traditional Database

Blockchain – In blockchain, most of the peers agree on the outcome of transactions.
Traditional – Here in the traditional database, distributed transactions can happen.

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RSA Archer Interview Questions And Answers 2018

RSA Archer Interview Questions And Answers 2018. Here Coding compiler sharing a list of 38 interview questions on RSA Archer. These RSA interview questions were asked in various interviews conducted by top MNC companies and prepared by expert RSA Archer professionals. We are sure that these RSA Archer questions will help you to crack your next RSA Archer job interview. All the best for your future and happy learning.

RSA Archer Interview Questions

  1. What is RSA Archer?
  2. What does the RSA stand for?
  3. Why do we use RSA Key?
  4. What is an RSA token used for?
  5. How is RSA used?
  6. Is RSA asymmetric or symmetric?
  7. What is a GRC tool?
  8. What is a GRC platform?
  9. What are the different products of RSA?
  10. What are the benefits of RSA Archer?
  11. What is RSA Archer Audit Management?
  12. What are the benefits of RSA Archer Audit Management?
  13. What is RSA Archer Issues Management?
  14. What is RSA Archer Audit Engagements & Workpapers?
  15. What is RSA Archer Audit Planning & Quality?

RSA Archer Interview Questions And Answers

1) What is RSA Archer?

A) RSA Archer eGRC Solutions allow you to build an efficient, collaborative enterprise governance, risk and compliance (eGRC) program across IT, finance, operations and legal domains. These solutions include Policy, Risk, Compliance, Enterprise, Incident, Vendor, Threat, Business Continuity and Audit Management.

2) What does the RSA stand for?

A) A public-key encryption technology developed by RSA Data Security, Inc. The acronym stands for Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman, the inventors of the technique. The RSA algorithm is based on the fact that there is no efficient way to factor very large numbers.

 

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 3) Why do we use RSA Key?

A) RSA key is a private key based on RSA algorithm. Since encrypted data transmission takes too much time in case of asymmetric encryption, this kind of encryption is used for a secure symmetric key exchange that is used for actual transmitted data encryption and decryption.

4) What is an RSA token used for?

A) RSA SecurID (“SecurID”) is a two-factor authentication technology that is used to protect network resources. The authentication is based on two factors — something you know (a password or PIN) and something you have (an authenticator).

5) How is RSA used?

A) RSA is a relatively slow algorithm, and because of this, it is less commonly used to directly encrypt user data. More often, RSA passes encrypted shared keys for symmetric key cryptography which in turn can perform bulk encryption-decryption operations at much higher speed.

6) Is RSA asymmetric or symmetric?

A) Asymmetric encryption is also known as public-key cryptography. Asymmetric encryption differs from symmetric encryption primarily in that two keys are used: one for encryption and one for decryption. The most common asymmetric encryption algorithm is RSA.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 7) What is a GRC tool?

A) Auditing, reporting, monitoring and assessment often require specialist governance, risk management and compliance (GRC) tools. They can be costly, take time to set up and usually necessitate training.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 8) What is a GRC platform?

A) Governance, risk management and compliance or GRC is the umbrella term covering an organization’s approach across these three areas: Governance, risk management, and compliance.

9) What are the different products of RSA?

A) RSA creates a wide range of industry-leading products that allow customers to take control of risk. Whether those risks stem from external cyber threats, identity and access management challenges, online fraud, compliance pressure or any number of other business and technology issues, RSA’s extensive portfolio of integrated, independently-top rated products better position public- and private-sector enterprises to drive growth and embrace change in today’s complex, volatile world.

They are:

  • Advanced Threat Detection & Response – RSA NetWitness Suite
  • Identity and Access Management – RSA SecurID Suite
  • Governance, Risk & Compliance (GRC) – RSA Archer Suite
  • Fraud Prevention – RSA Fraud & Risk Intelligence Suite

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 10) What are the benefits of RSA Archer?

A) The benefits of RSA Archer includes,

  • Enables collaboration on risk issues across business lines and organizational boundaries.
  • Allows organizations to define and enforce accountability for risk and compliance issues.
  • Built on the most flexible, configurable and powerful GRC platform in the industry.
  • Enhances business performance and helps organizations make more informed decisions faster.
  • Includes pre-built integrations with many other technologies, including security tools and business support applications.
  • A strong network of certified RSA Archer experts possess the experience and knowledge to lead you on a path to success.
  • Helps organizations derive efficiencies by automating processes.
  • Improves visibility by consolidating data and enabling risk analytics across your organization.
  • Provides a best practices-driven approach to quickly implement effective risk management processes and plan for expansion based on strategy and investment schedule.
  • Designed with built-in industry standards so that customers can quickly implement the processes that give business leaders the visibility they need.

Interview Questions on RSA Archer

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 11) What is RSA Archer Audit Management?

A) RSA Archer Audit Management improve governance of audit-related activities while integrating your risk and control functions. It ransform the efficiency of your internal audit department, complete risk-scoped audits more quickly, and partner with the business to achieve organization’s goals.

12) What are the benefits of RSA Archer Audit Management?

A) There are many benefits of RSA Archer Audit Management, they are:

  1. Dynamically Adjust Risk-Based Audit Plans
  2. Execute Internal Audit Engagements Efficiently
  3. Tackle Risk and Compliance Issues Across Teams with One Central System
  4. Automates the Audit Processes

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 13) What is RSA Archer Issues Management?

A) RSA archer issue management coordinate issues generated by audit, risk and compliance processes and by operational groups. Lay the foundation to establish prioritization, workflow, structure and accountability to manage findings, remediation plans and exceptions.

14) What is RSA Archer Audit Engagements & Workpapers?

A) It efficiently perform audit engagements, maintain workpaper documentation and provide consistent and timely reporting on audit results.

15) What is RSA Archer Audit Planning & Quality?

A) Take a risk-based approach to audit planning to ensure timely, prioritized and effective audit plans. Easily identify, define and assess the risk of your auditable entities across the organization.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 16) What is RSA Archer Business Resiliency?

A) RSA archer business resiliency, automate business continuity and disaster recovery planning and execution to protect your ongoing operations. Transform the efficiency of your continuity and recovery teams, address the most critical areas of the business quickly, and partner across the business to achieve your organization’s resiliency goals.

17) What are the benefits of RSA Archer Business Resiliency?

A) The benefits of RSA archer business resiliency are,

  • It Bring Business Context to Business Continuity & IT Disaster Recovery Planning
  • Integrate Incident and Crisis Response
  • Adapt Your Resiliency Program to Align with Your Business Priorities

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 18) What is RSA Archer Business Impact Analysis?

A) RSA Archer Business Impact Analysis, identify critical business processes and prioritize recovery activities.

19) What is RSA Archer Incident Management?

A) RSA archer incident management, centralize and streamline tracking, workflow and resolution of day-to-day incidents, whether they be security, physical or employee-related—before they become business disruptions.

20) What is RSA Archer Business Continuity & IT Disaster Recovery Planning?

A) It implement a coordinated approach to business continuity and IT disaster recovery planning, testing and execution.

RSA Interview Questions And Answers

21) What is RSA Archer Crisis Management?

A) RSA archer crisis management align and activate business continuity and IT disaster recovery plans, and manage and report on crisis events.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 22) What Is Operational Risk Management?

A) A subset of enterprise risk management, operational risk management (ORM) is a discipline that provides risk professionals with tools and frameworks for identifying, evaluating, monitoring and controlling operational risks.

23) What is RSA Archer Enterprise & Operational Risk Management?

A) Using RSA archer enterprise and operational rist management, gain a clear, consolidated view of risk to efficiently address the most critical issues and elevate risk management as a new source of competitive advantage. Bring risk information together across the organization to consistently identify, assess, evaluate, treat and monitor risks in one central solution.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 24) What is RSA Archer Risk Catalog?

A) RSA archer risk catalog is used to record and track risks across your enterprise and establish accountability for them. Take a top-down, qualitative approach to assessing inherent and residual risk and enable a three-level rollup of risk, from a granular level up through enterprise risk statements.

25) Can you explain about RSA Archer Top-Down Risk Assessment?

A) Document risks and controls throughout your organization. Perform risk assessments on new products and services, business processes, and mergers and acquisitions.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 26) What is RSA Archer Loss Event Management?

A) Track and report on loss events, perform root cause analysis, and establish accountability across your enterprise. Manage the loss event lifecycle to understand where and how your operational risk management (ORM) program needs to be strengthened.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 27) What is RSA Archer Key Indicator Management?

A) Manage the key indicator lifecycle to monitor and report on insights to business risks. Establish and monitor metrics related to each business unit within the organization.

28) What is RSA Archer Bottom-Up Risk Assessment?

A) Implement a consistent risk assessment program to more effectively identify operational risks within your business. Document projects and create questionnaires from the extensive library in RSA Archer.

29) What is RSA Archer Operational Risk Management?

A) Understand the business context of risk with an aggregated view of operational risks across the business. Engage business managers in using consistent methodologies to identify and manage the risks and controls under their purview.

Advanced RSA Archer Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced

30) What is RSA Archer Enterprise Risk Management?

A) Manage risks to strategic business objectives for an edge in today’s competitive market. Consolidate all risks into one view across your enterprise for reporting and analytics, and to help prioritize limited resources.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 31) What is RSA Archer IT & Security Risk Management?

A) Bridge business context and process enablement to effectively address the complexity and cascading impact of rapidly changing cybersecurity risks. Adjust and evolve threat and vulnerability management processes to stay ahead of growing threats.

32) What are the features of RSA Archer IT & Security Risk Management?

A) The features of RSA Archer IT & Security Risk Management are,

Connect Cybersecurity Risks in the Context of GRC

Bridge Business Context and Process Enablement

Address IT and Security Risk Management Through Multiple Dimensions

Quantify IT and Cyber Security Risk in Financial Terms

33) What are the benefits of RSA Archer IT & Security Risk Management?

A) The benefits of RSA Archer IT & Security Risk Management are,

Establish and track reliable quantitative financial and data metrics to inform an executive-level understanding of cyber security and cyber risk postures.

Reduce the complexity and cascading impact of rapidly changing cybersecurity risks.

Align IT and security processes and policies with higher-level directional strategies to reduce operational risk and support business growth initiatives.

Mitigate the financial, operational and reputational impacts of a cyber attack through early detection and accelerated cyber incident response.

Improve your organization’s overall risk posture by gaining greater visibility into cybersecurity risks across your enterprise.

Obtain the information and insights needed to effectively manage your organization’s portfolio of cyber security and other strategic technology investments

34) What is RSA Archer Regulatory & Corporate Compliance Management?

A) It ensure controls are defined, implemented and measured to meet shifting compliance obligations. Establish a sustainable, repeatable and auditable regulatory compliance program by consolidating information from multiple regulatory bodies and documenting the impact to the business.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 35) What is the use of RSA Archer Platform?

A) The RSA Archer GRC Platform provides a common foundation to manage policies, controls, risks, assessments and deficiencies across your lines of business. Improve cross-functional collaboration and alignment among IT, finance, operations and legal with an integrated framework and common processes and data.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 36) What are the features of RSA archer platform?

A) The features of rsa archer platform are,

Application Builder – Build on-demand applications through point-and-click configuration.

Access Control – Enforce who can access specific risk and compliance data at the system, application, record and field levels.

System Integration – Consolidate governance, risk and compliance information of any type. Seamlessly integrate data systems without requiring additional software.

Deployment Flexibility – Balance administrative control, time to value, and cost considerations when planning your implementation with support for on-premises and hosted deployments.

Search, Reports and Dashboards – Take advantage of pre-built reports and dashboards and create your own with the user-friendly web interface.

Advanced Business Workflow – Define and automate business processes for streamlining the management of content, tasks, statuses and approvals.

Globalization – Enable customers to support multiple languages within their RSA Archer environment with region or language locale-specific components

Pre-Built Integrations – Take advantage of pre-built integrations for the RSA Archer GRC Platform available on the RSA Archer GRC Community on RSA Link.

37) What are the benefits of RSA Archer Platform?

A) The benefits of RSA Archer Platform are,

It improves cross-functional collaboration and alignment, with business users across IT, finance, operations and legal working together in an integrated framework using common processes and data.

As the foundation for all RSA Archer GRC solutions and use cases, the platform eases system complexity, strengthens user adoption and reduces training time.

Non-technical users can automate processes, streamline workflows, control user access, tailor the user interface and report in real-time using the point-and-click interface to build and manage business applications.

RSA Archer Interview Questions # 38) What is RSA Exchange?

A) The RSA Exchange is an integral part of the RSA Archer ecosystem, providing a faster and more flexible development cycle for RSA and partners to deliver value-added offerings for customers’ RSA Archer implementations. Source

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Commvault Interview Questions And Answers 2018

Commvault Interview Questions And Answers 2018. Here Coding compiler sharing a list of 30 interview questions on Commvault. These Commvault questions were asked in various interviews conducted by top MNC companies and prepared by Commvault experts. We are sure that these real-time advanced Commvault interview questions for experienced, will help you to crack your next Commvault job interview. All the best for your future and happy learning.

Commvault Interview Questions

  1. What is Commvault?
  2. How is data protected using Commvault?
  3. What are the different Enterprise Data Mangement Solutions of Commvault?
  4. WHAT AREAS OF DATA MANAGEMENT DOES THIS COMMVAULT SUPPORT?
  5. WHAT IS THE BREADTH AND DEPTH OF CLOUD SUPPORT OF COMMVAULT?
  6. WHAT ARE THE DATA MIGRATION CAPABILITIES OF THE SYSTEM?
  7. WHAT DATA MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES ARE INCLUDED IN COMMVAULT?
  8. HOW DOES THE DATA MANAGEMENT PLATFORM SUPPORT DATA USE?
  9. HOW DOES THE PLATFORM SUPPORT DISASTER RECOVERY?
  10. What is Application Data Management?
  11. What are the features of COMMVAULT’S UNIFIED SOLUTION?
  12. HOW COMMVAULT HELPS THROUGHOUT THE APPLICATION LIFECYCLE PROCESS?
  13. What are the Key features of Commvault?
  14. What is Native Cloud Connectivity?
  15. What does the Native Cloud Connector do?

Commvault Interview Questions And Answers

 

1) What is Commvault?

A) Commvault software assists organizations with data backup and recovery, cloud and infrastructure management, and retention and compliance.

Commvault software is an enterprise-level data platform that contains modules to back up, restore, archive, replicate, and search data. It is built from the ground-up on a single platform and unified code base.

 

Commvault Interview Questions # 2) How is data protected using Commvault?

A) Data is protected by installing agent software on the physical or virtual hosts, which use operating system or application native APIs to protect data in a consistent state.

Production data is processed by the agent software on client computers and backed up through a data manager, the MediaAgent, to disk, tape, or cloud storage.

All data management activity in the environment is tracked by a centralized server, the CommServe, and can be managed by administrators through a central user interface.

End users can access protected data using web browsers and mobile devices.

 

3) What are the different Enterprise Data Mangement Solutions of Commvault?

A) Commvault has different Enterprise Data Management Solutions, they are:

CLOUD DATA MANAGEMENT – Move, manage and use data effectively across multiple clouds and on-premises.

DATA VIRTUALIZATION – Manage virtual infrastructures as they grow and diversify, with scalable protection, rapid recovery, and self-service.

ENDPOINT PROTECTION – Secure and protect data at the network’s edge. Regain control and effectively manage the data that lives outside the datacenter.

APPLICATIONS – Drive availability and rapid recovery of applications, innovate faster, and automate the migration to the cloud.

COMMVAULT HYPERSCALE – Deliver the agility and business benefits of the cloud to your on-premises applications and data on a scale-out infrastructure.

4) WHAT AREAS OF DATA MANAGEMENT DOES THIS SYSTEM SUPPORT?

A) Commvault supports Data backup, Data recovery, Single view of on-premises and cloud data, Setting automated data policies, eDiscovery, Disaster recovery, GDPR readiness, Ransomware recovery options.

 

Commvault Interview Questions # 5) WHAT IS THE BREADTH AND DEPTH OF CLOUD SUPPORT?

A) Commvault supports various cloud platforms including Microsfot Azure, Amaxon AWS, Oracle Cloud, Google Cloud and Private Clouds.

Microsoft Azure

  • Azure Virtual Machines
  • Azure SQL Database
  • Azure Blob Storage (Hot and Cool and Archive)
  • Azure Data Box

Amazon AWS

  • Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2)
  • Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS)
  • Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3 & S3-IA)
  • Glacier
  • Snowball

Oracle Cloud

  • Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage (OCI)
  • Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage (S3 Compatible)
  • Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Archive
  • Storage Classic (OCIC)

Google Cloud

  • Nearline
  • Coldline
  • Regional
  • Multi-Regional

Private clouds

  • IBM
  • HPE
  • Rackspace
  • VMware

Real-Time Commvault Interview Questions

 

6) WHAT ARE THE DATA MIGRATION CAPABILITIES OF THE SYSTEM?

A) Move data to the cloud

  • Move data from the cloud
  • Move data across cloud storage – public or private
  • Built-in compression, deduplication, and encryption
  • Automation to define process flows across data projects
  • Orchestration from provisioning to validation
  • Native cloud integrations instead of proprietary gateways
  • Automated data archiving based on preset retention schedules

7) WHAT DATA MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES ARE INCLUDED?

A) Manage data across on-premises data centers, public, and private clouds

GDPR readiness: detection of personal data for proactive data cleanup and data subject requests
Extend on-premises service level agreements (SLA) for policies to cloud
Apply consistent management policies as new data enters the environment

8) HOW DOES THE DATA MANAGEMENT PLATFORM SUPPORT DATA USE?

A) Users can discover and recover data across hybrid locations

Access data without restoring it; use data directly from the cloud repository

Single search for data indexing across on-premises and cloud storage

Quickly create new dev/test environments in the cloud using replicated data

9) HOW DOES THE PLATFORM SUPPORT DISASTER RECOVERY?

A) Manage disaster recovery across on-premises, public, and private cloud storage

Automate disaster recovery workflows with tested cloud management policies

Push-button disaster recovery processes to create cloud storage, data, and policies

Recover data and applications directly in the cloud or across platforms (physical-virtual-cloud)

Multiple recovery time objectives (RTO) and recovery point objectives (RPO) for different workloads

Commvault Interview Questions # 10) What is Application Data Management?

A) Commvault’s powerful application data management includes, application data protection and recovery solution.

Applications are managed throughout their lifecycle, accelerating the dev/test process for improved business agility, enabling the rapid recovery of production application data and the ability to meet stringent recovery SLAs, and improving application performance with data archiving while reducing your storage footprint, all using a single console that simplifies management.

Advanced Commvault Interview Questions

11) What are the features of COMMVAULT’S UNIFIED SOLUTION?

A) IMPROVE OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY
• Automate and orchestrate data movement
• Improve staff efficiency with policy-based automation
• Use a single console and gain greater visibility into data

REDUCE COSTS AND IMPROVE UTILIZATION
• Reduce data sprawl with Active Copy Management*
• Accelerate dev/test process with automated delivery of copies
• Improve application performance and optimize storage with archiving

ACHIEVE GREATER AGILITY AND SCALE
• Scale seamlessly with broad application, cloud, storage and support
• Improve RTO/RPO with automated snapshots
• Protect and manage your data throughout its lifecycle

 

12) HOW COMMVAULT HELPS THROUGHOUT THE APPLICATION LIFECYCLE PROCESS?

A) DEV/TEST
• Reduce data sprawl with policybased automation
• Accelerate the dev/test process with self-service access (no waiting for provisioning or restores)

PRODUCTION
• Automate data movement to, from, within, and between clouds with automated workflows
• Use snapshots to rapidly recover data and meet stringent RTOs/RPOs

ARCHIVE/RETIRE
• Improve application performance and reduce production footprint with archiving
• Retire inactive databases, search archived data, and restore to vendor neutral format

Commvault Interview Questions # 13) What are the Key features of Commvault?

A) Commvault provides the industry’s fastest, easiest access to application data:

Gain crucial insights for developing fresh products and services
Ensure production copies remain secure

Automation: Commvault automates,

  • PROTECTION
  • RECOVERY
  • DISASTER RECOVERY
  • DATA REFRESH PROCEDURES FOR TEST/DEV

BETTER SNAPSHOTS

• Instant data refresh and recoveries
• Support for hardware snapshots and array replication to:
• Enhance DR execution
• Simplify compliance and reporting
• Improve and automate business and dev processes

INFRASTRUCTURE MODERNIZATION

COMPLETE COVERAGE FOR TODAY’S ESSENTIAL DATABASES AND BUSINESS APPLICATIONS, INCLUDING:

• Postgres
• Greenplum
• Salesforce
• NetSuite
• IBM
• Microsoft
• Oracle
• SAP

ADVANCED RECOVERY AND COPY FEATURES

Speed operations with instant access and native controls.

FEATURES FOR ALL YOUR DATA COPY CHALLENGES:

• Index operations on the fly at point of recovery
• Mount a data volume to access data in native format
• Recover in the background while accessing from the repository
• Create thin copies of databases for secondary use cases
• Mirror block changes for automated failover to an alternate site

Commvault Interview Questions # 14) What is Native Cloud Connectivity?

A) The Cloud Connector is the native integration within the Media Agent module that directly communicates with Azure’s Object Storage layer, without requiring translation devices, gateways, hardware appliances or VTLs.

Scenario-Based Commvault Interview Questions

15) What does the Native Cloud Connector do?

A) This Connector works by communicating directly with Object Storage’s REST API interface over HTTPS, allowing for Media Agent deployments on both Virtual and Physical compute layers to perform read/write operations against Cloud Storage targets, reducing the Data Management solution’s TCO.

 

Commvault Interview Questions # 16) Can you describe Scalability in Commvault?

A) Applications grow over time, and a Data Management solution needs to adapt with the change rate to protect the dataset quickly and efficiently, while maintaining an economy of scale that continues to generate business value out of that system.

 

Commvault Interview Questions # 17) What are De-duplication Building Blocks?

A) Commvault software maintains a Building Block approach for protecting datasets, regardless of the origin or type of data. These blocks are sized based on the Front-End TB (FET), or the size of data they will ingest, pre-compression/de-duplication. This provides clear scale out and up guidelines for the capabilities and requirements for each Media Agent.

De-duplication Building Blocks can also be grouped together in a grid, providing further deduplication scale, load balancing and redundancy across all nodes within the grid.

 

18) What is Client-side De-Duplication?

A) As is the nature of de-duplication operations, each block must be hashed to determine if it is a duplicate block, or unique and then must be captured. While this is seen as a way to improve the ingest performance of the data mover (Media Agent), it has the secondary effect of reducing the network traffic stemming from each Client communicating through to the data mover.

In public cloud environments where network performance can vary, the use of Client-side DeDuplication can reduce backup windows and drive higher scale, freeing up bandwidth for both Production and Backup network traffic.

19) Can you describe Crash Consistency vs. Application Consistency?

A) While Crash-consistency within a recovery point may be sufficient for a file-based dataset or Azure VM, it may not be appropriate for an Application such as Microsoft SQL, where the database instance needs to be quiesced to ensure the database is valid at time of backup. Commvault software supports both Crash and Application consistent backups, providing flexibility in your design.

20) Explain about Storage-level Replication vs. Discrete Copies?

A) Many cloud providers support replication at the Object Storage layer from one region to another, however, in the circumstance that bad or corrupted blocks are replicated to the secondary region, your recovery points are invalid.

Commvault Interview Questions For Experienced

21) How do you Decide What to Protect in Cloud?

A) Not all workloads within the Cloud need protection – for example, with microservices architectures, or any architecture that involve worker nodes that write out the valued data to an alternate source, mean that there is no value in protecting the worker nodes. Instead, the protection of the gold images and the output of those nodes provides the best value for the business.

Commvault Interview Questions # 22) What is Automation in Commvault?

A) The cloud encourages automation, not just because the infrastructure is programmable, but the benefits of having repeatable actions reduce operational overheads, bolster resilience through known good configurations and allows for greater levels of scale.

Commvault Interview Questions # 23) What is Programmatic Data Management?

A) Commvault software provides a robust Application Programming Interface that allows for automated control over Deployment, Configuration, Backup and Restore activities within the solution.

Whether you are designing a continuous delivery model that requires the automated deployment of applications, data collection and protection, or automating the refresh of a data warehouse or Dev/Test application that leverages data protection, Commvault software can provide the controls to reduce administrative overhead and integrate with your toolset of choice.

24) Can you describe Workload Auto-Detection and Auto-Protection?

A) The Commvault Intelligent Data Agents (iDA), whether the Virtual Server Agent for Azure, or the SQL Server iDA provide auto-detection capabilities to reduce administrative load.

Fresh instances, new volumes recently attached to a VM, or databases imported and created in a SQL instance are just examples of how Commvault software can automatically detect new datasets for inclusion in the next Data Protection window, all without manual intervention.

Even agent-inguest deployments can be auto-detected by Commvault and included in the next Data Protection schedule through intelligent Client Computer Groups.

This Auto-Detection and Auto-Protection level removes the requirement for a backup or cloud administrator to manually update the solution to protect the newly created datasets, improving your operational excellence and improving resiliency within your cloud infrastructure, ensuring new data is protected and recovery points maintained.

25) Explain about Self-Service Access and Restore?

A) A common task performed by system administrators is facilitating access to recovery points for end-users and application owners, shifting their attention away from other day-to-day operations and strategic projects.

Commvault software’s self-service interfaces empower users to access their datasets through a Web-based interface, allowing security mapped access to individual files & folders within the protected dataset, freeing up administrators to work on critical tasks.

Frequently Asked Commvault Backup Interview Questions and Answers

Commvault Interview Questions # 26) What is Azure Virtual Network?

A) Azure has the capability to establish an isolated logical network, referred to as an Azure Virtual Network (AVN).

Virtual Machines deployed within a AVN by default have no access to Public Internet, and utilize a subnet of the Customer’s choice.

Typically AVN’s are used when creating a backbone between Virtual Machines, and also when establishing a dedicated network route from a Customer’s existing on-premise network directly into Azure via Azure ExpressRoute.

Commvault Interview Questions # 27) What is Data Seeding?

A) Data Seeding is moving the initial set of data from its current location to a cloud provider in a method or process that is different from regular or normal operations.

28) Explain Compression vs. De-duplication?

A) It is recommended that De-duplication should be used where possible, with the exception of environments where there are significant bandwidth concerns for re-baselining operations, or for Archive only use cases.

While additional compute resources are required to provide the necessary foundation for optimal De-duplication performance, using De-duplication even in a cloud context can still achieve greater than a 10:1 reduction.

29) How do you use Workflow to Automate DR?

A) The Commvault Workflow engine provides a framework in which the DR runbook process, covering the deployment of new instances, recovery of data and applications, and validation aspects of a DR operation can be automated to deliver a simplified, end-to-end GUI-driven DR process.

 

30) What is Continuous Data Replicator (CDR)?

A) CDR allows near time continuous data replication for critical workloads. Replication can be configured as Direct Replication (1:1 source to destination host), or as a Fan-in or Fan-out based replication configuration.

When to use CDR approach:

Fan-in replication of File data-sets from Remote regions to a Cloud-based host – CDR supports a fan-in based replication approach (Many-to-1) in which data from remote sites can be replicated into a target Cloud-based host

Guest-level Replication of File and SQL/Exchange data-sets – CDR can be used to perform asynchronous block-based replication of File, SQL and Exchange datasets between hosts, irrespective of the source/destination hardware/hypervisor and storage. This allows data to be kept in-sync between an on-premise host and a cloud-based host. Source

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Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions And Answers 2018

Top Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions And Answers 2018. Here Coding compiler sharing a list of 30 interview questions on Peoplesoft Admin. These Peoplesoft admin questions were asked in various interviews conducted by top MNC companies and prepared by expert Peoplesoft professionals. All the best for your future and happy learning.

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions

  1. What is PSADMIN in Peoplesoft?
  2. What elements are there in PSADMIN?
  3. What does PSADMIN do?
  4. What are the Analytic Servers?
  5. Can you give example scenario for Analytic Server?
  6. PeopleSoft supports which Web Servers?
  7. Why do we use WebLogic server in PeopleSoft?
  8. What is Single server definition in Weblogic Server?
  9. What is Multi server definition in Weblogic Server?
  10. What is Distributed managed server definition in Weblogic Server?
  11. What is WebLogic Server Administration Console?
  12. How can you start WebLogic on Microsoft Windows?
  13. How do you uninstall the Weblogic server?
  14. How do you start WebLogic on UNIX?

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions And Answers

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions
What is PSADMIN?PSADMIN for managing application server domains.
PeopleSoft SupportsOracle WebLogic and IBM WebSphere web servers.
Tuxedo in PeoplesoftTuxedo is a transaction based Application Server.
User ID and PasswordsAre stored in PSOPRDEFN Table.
JVM HeapIs the amount of memory that a particular JRE gives to the JVM that it creates.

Peoplesoft Admin Questions And Answers

1) What is PSADMIN in Peoplesoft?

A) You use PSADMIN for managing application server domains, PeopleSoft Process Scheduler domains, integration server processes, search domains, and so on. PSADMIN also enables you to configure and manage the behavior of servers with respect to a wide range of PeopleTools infrastructure elements.

 

2) What elements are there in PSADMIN?

A) PSADMIN consists of various PeopleTools infrastructure elements, including,

  • Tuxedo and Jolt.
  • PeopleCode debugging.
  • Caching.
  • Analytic server framework.
  • Transactional SQL requests.
  • Performance enhancement.
  • PeopleSoft Query.
  • Integration Broker.
  • Email.
  • Real-time event notification.
  • Performance Monitor.
  • MultiChannel Framework.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 3) What does PSADMIN do?

A) PSADMIN simplifies the process of configuring and administering all of the server processes and features that are available for PeopleSoft servers. For example, you use PSADMIN to configure application server domains, Process Scheduler servers, PIA domains, and search servers.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 4) How can you launch PSADMIN?

A) By using PS_HOME\appserv\psadmin.exe from the command line, we can launch the PSADMIN.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 5) What are the Analytic Servers?

A) The analytic server framework provided by PeopleSoft is a general server infrastructure designed to meet the needs of PeopleSoft products that process large amounts of data in memory.

It provides a stateful model of client/server connectivity that these products require to be part of the PeopleTools system, by keeping track of configuration settings, transaction information, and other data for a session.

 

6) Can you give example scenario for Analytic Server?

A) For example, client software could request that an analytic model or optimization model be recalculated in one transaction, then retrieve the results of the calculation on that model at a later time.

A server process handles these requests and maintains the model state and calculated data in memory between the requests. Additional transactions can then modify the model and perform recalculations on it without shuffling all of the data between the client and the server or dumping all the data into a database, thus preserving in-memory performance.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 7) PeopleSoft supports which Web Servers?

A) PeopleSoft supports Oracle WebLogic and IBM WebSphere web servers, which provide the same basic functionality to support PeopleSoft applications, including a console interface, secure sockets layer (SSL), and reverse proxy servers (RPS).

Each web server has its own way of accomplishing its functionality, and each adds its own extra features that you might find useful to your PeopleSoft system. This PeopleBook provides supplemental information about configuring and administering the web servers where it has particular relevance to PeopleSoft.

 

8) Why do we use WebLogic server in PeopleSoft?

A) We use the Oracle WebLogic Server as a web server in the PeopleSoft Internet Architecture to deploy PeopleSoft applications. The PeopleSoft Internet Architecture installation on the WebLogic Server provides these primary server configuration options.

 

9) What is Single server definition in Weblogic Server?

A) This domain configuration contains one server named PIA, and the entire PeopleSoft application is deployed to it. This configuration is intended for a single user or very small scale, non-production environments.

 

10) What is Multi server definition in Weblogic Server?

A) This domain configuration contains seven unique server definitions and a WebLogic cluster, and the PeopleSoft application is split across multiple server instances on a single machine. This configuration is intended for the production environment.

Advanced Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions

11) What is Distributed managed server definition in Weblogic Server?

A) This option is an extension of the “Multi server” selection and installs the necessary files to boot managed servers spread across multiple machines. This option requires a “Multi server” installation to be performed to some other location that contains the configuration for this managed server.

 

12) What is WebLogic Server Administration Console?

A) The WebLogic Server Administration Console is the main utility that is used to administer and monitor the WebLogic server processes.

The Administration Console provides an interface to monitor and configure aspects of a PeopleSoft application from a web server perspective.

Access the Administration Console by pointing your browser to:

http://<server>:<port>/console

For example,

http://server08.us.oracle.com:80/console

Where the port is the port on which your PeopleSoft Internet Architecture domain is listening.

If it is a multi server installation the Administration Console from the Admin Server is always running on port 9999. For accessing the Administration Console in a multi server installation, the URL is:

http://<server>:9999/console

Before the Administration Console opens, you will be prompted for the WebLogic administration ID and password that you specified during the PeopleSoft Internet Architecture installation.

 

13) How can you start WebLogic on Microsoft Windows?

A) On Microsoft Windows, you can start WebLogic using: command prompt and Windows service.

Using the Command Prompt:

Running WebLogic as a foreground process is beneficial if you need to monitor WebLogic in real time. To run WebLogic as a foreground process, enter one of the following commands at the command prompt in PIA_HOME\webserv\domain\bin.

  • Single server – startPIA.cmd Or, you can use the PSADMIN PIA domain menu options.
  • Multi server – domain admin server – startWebLogicAdmin.cmd
  • Multi server – managed server – startManagedWebLogic.cmd server

For example, startManagedWebLogic.cmd PIA

Using the Windows Service

Benefits of running WebLogic as a Windows service include:

WebLogic can automatically start when the Windows server boots.

You can start and stop the service from a remote Windows machine.

To install the service, open the command prompt, and enter the appropriate command from your PIA_HOME\webserv\domain\bin directory:

Single server – installNTservicePIA.cmd

Multi server – InstallNTservice.cmd weblogic_server_instance_name

For example: installNTservice.cmd PIA

To start WebLogic as a Windows service, you can:

Start the service named WebLogicdomain-servername (for example, peoplesoft-PIA) by using the Services utility in the Windows Control Panel.

Start the service from a command prompt by entering the following command: NET START peoplesoft-PIA

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 14) How do you uninstall the Weblogic server?

A) To uninstall the service, enter the following command:

uninstallNTservicePIA.cmd

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 15) How do you start WebLogic on UNIX?

A) To start PeopleSoft on UNIX execute the appropriate script in the WebLogic domain directory that the PeopleSoft install created, as in PIA_HOME/webserv/peoplesoft/bin.

  • Single server – startPIA.sh
  • Multi server – domain admin server – startWebLogicAdmin.sh
  • Multi server – managed server – startManagedWebLogic.sh server

For example, startManagedWebLogic.sh PIA

 

16) How do you stop WebLogic Using the Command Line?

A) To stop WebLogic using the command line, enter the appropriate command.

  • Configuration – Windows – UNIX
  • Single server – stopPIA.cmd – stopPIA.sh
  • Multi server (WebLogic Admin server) – stopWebLogic.cmd – stopWebLogic.sh
  • Multi server (Managed WebLogic server) – stopWebLogic.cmd <ManagedServerName> – StopWebLogic.sh <ManagedServer Name>

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 17) How can you control WebLogic server life cycle?

A) control a WebLogic server’s life cycle primarily using a collection of scripts provided in that server’s WebLogic domain directory.

Each instance of a WebLogic server runs in an isolated Java Runtime Environment (JRE), regardless of whether you’re testing with a single-server configuration or implementing a multi-server configuration for production. All scripts must be launched from the WebLogic domain directory; and provide usage syntax if run with –help.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 18) What is JVM Heap?

A) The JVM heap size is the amount of memory that a particular JRE (Java Runtime Environment) gives to the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) that it creates.

The java.exe command on Windows, java on UNIX and beasvc.exe when running WebLogic as a Windows service is the JRE, and the JVM exists within the JRE’s memory space. The primary sources for monitoring the amount of memory that is in use within a JVM are the Administration Console and the WebLogic logs.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 19) How can you change the JVM Heap Size?

A) If you need to adjust any of the Java options, most commonly the JVM heap size, you must manually edit that WebLogic domain’s local setEnv script. The parameters, -Xms and -Xmx, control the JVM memory minimum and maximum heap size respectively.

 

20) What is PeopleSoft Configuration Manager?

A) PeopleSoft Configuration Manager is a Microsoft Windows application that simplifies development workstation administration by enabling you to adjust PeopleSoft registry settings from a central location.

You can set up one development workstation to reflect the environment at your site, then export the configuration file, which can be shared among other workstations. You can also define separate profiles for connecting to different PeopleSoft databases.

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions For Experienced

21) What are the PeopleSoft configuration parameters?

A) PeopleSoft configuration parameters are grouped on the Configuration Manager pages according to the function, feature, or tool that they control, including:

  • Startup settings.
  • Display settings.
  • Crystal report and Business Interlink settings.
  • Trace settings.
  • Workflow settings.
  • Remote call settings.
  • Developer workstations.
  • Importing and exporting environment settings.
  • Defining configuration profiles.

 

22) What is the use of PeopleSoft Configuration Manager?

A) PeopleSoft Configuration Manager simplifies Windows workstation administration by enabling you to adjust PeopleSoft registry settings from one central location.

It contains a variety of controls that let you set up Windows workstations running development and administrative applications, such as Application Designer and Data Mover.

You can set up one workstation to reflect the environment at your site, and then export the configuration file, which can be shared among all the workstations at your site.

You can also define separate profiles for connecting to different PeopleSoft databases. PeopleSoft configuration parameters are grouped on the Configuration Manager tabs according to the function, feature, or tool that they control.

 

23) What are the common Elements in PeopleSoft Configuration Manager?

  • OK – Saves your settings and exits PeopleSoft Configuration Manager.
  • Cancel – Closes PeopleSoft Configuration Manager without saving any changes that you have made.
  • Apply – Saves your changes without exiting.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 24) How can you launch Configuration Manager?

A) At a command prompt, enter:

PS_HOME\bin\client\winx86\pscfg.exe

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 25) What is PeopleSoft Server Process Logs?

A) For each PeopleSoft server process, such as PSAPPSRV, the system writes an individual log file to your specified logs directory.

Depending on the logging level, these log files can contain varying amounts of information. Reviewing these log files regularly can help you to identify potential issues or system trends, and they are a valuable source of information when troubleshooting.

To understand the log information, it is helpful to be able to identify the various log fields that the system writes to an individual line in the log file.

 

26) Can you give an example of PeopleSoft Server Process Logs?

A typical log file contains these log fields:

[Server Process]:[Operating System Process ID] [Service Request Number] [Timestamp] [Log Level] [Message]

PSAPPSRV.5648 – (993) – [2012-12-12T11:54:23.778] – (3) – Authenticate User not needed. New User Id/Password same as current.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 27) How can you configure PeopleCode Trace?

A) Select PeopleTools, Utilities, Debug, Trace PeopleCode to access the Trace PeopleCode page.

You use this page to change the PeopleCode tracing options while online. This page does not affect trace options that are set in PeopleSoft Configuration Manager.

Use Trace PeopleCode to create a file displaying information about PeopleCode programs processed from the time that you start the trace.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 28) How can you configure SQL Trace?

A) Select PeopleTools, Utilities, Debug, Trace SQL to access the Trace SQL page.

You use this page to change the SQL tracing options while you’re online.

 

Peoplesoft Admin Interview Questions # 29) What is IDDA Logging?

A) The PeopleSoft Instrumented Development Diagnostic Aid (IDDA) logger, enables you to gather specific information about various areas within the PeopleSoft Internet Architecture and PeopleSoft Interaction Hub.

 

30) What are PeopleTools Utilities and what it contains?

A) The PeopleTools utilities are a set of various configuration and administration interfaces that serve as a browser-based method of setting numerous system settings.

These utilities, most of which are available through the PeopleTools utility menu, provide the ability to configure, maintain, or launch a wide range of features, including:

  • The System Information page.
  • The message catalog.
  • The spell check dictionary.
  • Translate values.
  • Application server caching.
  • SQR customization.
  • Table management and sharing.
  • Backward compatibility.
  • Remote database connection.
  • File attachments.
  • Stored URLs.
  • Mobile data synchronization (deprecated).
  • Update tracking.
  • Platform-specific database features.
  • Database auditing.
  • International settings.
  • Optimization utilities.
  • PeopleSoft Ping. Source

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ZooKeeper Interview Questions And Answers 2018

ZooKeeper Interview Questions And Answers 2018. Here Coding compiler sharing a list of 30 interview questions on Zookeeper and these Zookeeper questions were asked in various interviews conducted by MNCs and prepared by ZooKeeper experts. All the best for your future and happy learning.

ZooKeeper Interview Questions

  1. What is ZooKeeper?
  2. What are the prime features of Apache Zookeeper?
  3. What is ZooKeeper Atomic Broadcast (ZAB) protocol?
  4. What are the key elements in ZooKeeper Architecture?
  5. What are the Design Goals of ZooKeeper?
  6. What is the Data model, and the hierarchical namespace?
  7. What are Nodes and ephemeral nodes?
  8. What are Znodes?
  9. What are Watches in Zookeeper?
  10. What is org.apache.jute package?

ZooKeeper Interview Questions And Answers

1) What is ZooKeeper?

A) ZooKeeper is a centralized service for maintaining configuration information, naming, providing distributed synchronization, and providing group services. All of these kinds of services are used in some form or another by distributed applications.

 

2) What are the prime features of Apache Zookeeper?

A) Some of the prime features of Apache ZooKeeper are:

Reliable System: This system is very reliable as it keeps working even if a node fails.

Simple Architecture: The architecture of ZooKeeper is quite simple as there is a shared hierarchical namespace which helps to coordinate the processes.

Fast Processing: Zookeeper is especially fast in “read-dominant” workloads (i.e. workloads in which reads are much more common than writes).

Scalable: The performance of ZooKeeper can be improved by adding nodes.

 

3) What is ZooKeeper Atomic Broadcast (ZAB) protocol?

A) The ZooKeeper Atomic Broadcast (ZAB) protocol is the core of the system. ZooKeeper can be viewed as an atomic broadcast system, through which updates are totally ordered.

 

4) What are the key elements in ZooKeeper Architecture?

A) The key elements in the Zookeeper architecture are:

Node: The systems installed on the cluster

ZNode: The nodes where the status is updated by other nodes in cluster

Client Applications: The tools that interact with the distributed applications

Server Applications: Allows the client applications to interact using a common interface

 

5) What are the Design Goals of ZooKeeper?

A) ZooKeeper is simple. ZooKeeper allows distributed processes to coordinate with each other through a shared hierarchal namespace which is organized similarly to a standard file system.

The name space consists of data registers – called znodes, in ZooKeeper parlance – and these are similar to files and directories. Unlike a typical file system, which is designed for storage, ZooKeeper data is kept in-memory, which means ZooKeeper can acheive high throughput and low latency numbers.

The ZooKeeper implementation puts a premium on high performance, highly available, strictly ordered access. The performance aspects of ZooKeeper means it can be used in large, distributed systems. The reliability aspects keep it from being a single point of failure. The strict ordering means that sophisticated synchronization primitives can be implemented at the client.

 

6) What is the Data model, and the hierarchical namespace?

A) The name space provided by ZooKeeper is much like that of a standard file system. A name is a sequence of path elements separated by a slash (/). Every node in ZooKeeper’s name space is identified by a path.

 

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 7) What are Nodes and ephemeral nodes?

A) Unlike is standard file systems, each node in a ZooKeeper namespace can have data associated with it as well as children. It is like having a file-system that allows a file to also be a directory.

(ZooKeeper was designed to store coordination data: status information, configuration, location information, etc., so the data stored at each node is usually small, in the byte to kilobyte range.)

 

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 8) What are Znodes?

A) Znodes maintain a stat structure that includes version numbers for data changes, ACL changes, and timestamps, to allow cache validations and coordinated updates. Each time a znode’s data changes, the version number increases. For instance, whenever a client retrieves data it also receives the version of the data.

The data stored at each znode in a namespace is read and written atomically. Reads get all the data bytes associated with a znode and a write replaces all the data. Each node has an Access Control List (ACL) that restricts who can do what.

ZooKeeper also has the notion of ephemeral nodes. These znodes exists as long as the session that created the znode is active. When the session ends the znode is deleted. Ephemeral nodes are useful when you want to implement.

 

9) What are Watches in Zookeeper?

A) ZooKeeper supports the concept of watches. Clients can set a watch on a znodes. A watch will be triggered and removed when the znode changes. When a watch is triggered the client receives a packet saying that the znode has changed. And if the connection between the client and one of the Zoo Keeper servers is broken, the client will receive a local notification.

 

10) What is org.apache.jute package?

A) org.apache.jute – Hadoop record I/O contains classes and a record description language translator for simplifying serialization and deserialization of records in a language-neutral manner.

Apache ZooKeeper Interview Questions

11) What are barriers?

A) A barrier is a primitive that enables a group of processes to synchronize the beginning and the end of a computation. The general idea of this implementation is to have a barrier node that serves the purpose of being a parent for individual process nodes. Suppose that we call the barrier node “/b1”. Each process “p” then creates a node “/b1/p”. Once enough processes have created their corresponding nodes, joined processes can start the computation.

 

12) What are Producer-Consumer Queues?

A) A producer-consumer queue is a distributed data structure that group of processes use to generate and consume items. Producer processes create new elements and add them to the queue. Consumer processes remove elements from the list, and process them.

 

13) What is CONNECTION_LOSS error?

A) CONNECTION_LOSS means the link between the client and server was broken. It doesn’t necessarily mean that the request failed. If you are doing a create request and the link was broken after the request reached the server and before the response was returned, the create request will succeed.

If the link was broken before the packet went onto the wire, the create request failed. Unfortunately, there is no way for the client library to know, so it returns CONNECTION_LOSS.

The programmer must figure out if the request succeeded or needs to be retired. Usually, this is done in an application-specific way. Examples of success detection include checking for the presence of a file to be created or checking the value of a znode to be modified.

 

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 14) How should you handle SESSION_EXPIRED?

A) SESSION_EXPIRED automatically closes the ZooKeeper handle. In a correctly operating cluster, you should never see SESSION_EXPIRED. It means that the client was partitioned off from the ZooKeeper service for more the the session timeout and ZooKeeper decided that the client died. Because the ZooKeeper service is ground truth, the client should consider itself dead and go into recovery.

If the client is only reading state from ZooKeeper, recovery means just reconnecting. In more complex applications, recovery means recreating ephemeral nodes, vying for leadership roles, and reconstructing published state.

 

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 15) Is there an easy way to expire a session for testing?

A) Yes, a ZooKeeper handle can take a session id and password. This constructor is used to recover a session after total application failure. For example, an application can connect to ZooKeeper, save the session id and password to a file, terminate, restart, read the session id and password, and reconnect to ZooKeeper without loosing the session and the corresponding ephemeral nodes.

It is up to the programmer to ensure that the session id and password isn’t passed around to multiple instances of an application, otherwise problems can result.

 

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 16) What are the options-process for upgrading ZooKeeper?

A) There are two primary ways of doing this; 1) full restart or 2) rolling restart.

In the full restart case you can stage your updated code/configuration/etc…, stop all of the servers in the ensemble, switch code/configuration, and restart the ZooKeeper ensemble.

If you do this programmatically (scripts typically, ie not by hand) the restart can be done on order of seconds. As a result the clients will lose connectivity to the ZooKeeper cluster during this time, however it looks to the clients just like a network partition.

All existing client sessions are maintained and re-established as soon as the ZooKeeper ensemble comes back up. Obviously, one drawback to this approach is that if you encounter any issues (it’s always a good idea to test/stage these changes on a test harness) the cluster may be down for longer than expected.

The second option, preferable for many users, is to do a “rolling restart”. In this case you upgrade one server in the ZooKeeper ensemble at a time; bring down the server, upgrade the code/configuration/etc…, then restart the server.

The server will automatically rejoin the quorum, update it’s internal state with the current ZK leader, and begin serving client sessions. As a result of doing a rolling restart, rather than a full restart, the administrator can monitor the ensemble as the upgrade progresses, perhaps rolling back if any issues are encountered.

 

17) Can I run an ensemble cluster behind a load balancer?

A) There are two types of servers failures in a distributed system from socket I/O perspective.

Server down due to hardware failures and OS panic/hang, Zookeeper daemon hang, temporary/permanent network outage, network switch anomaly, etc: client cannot figure out failures immediately since there is no responding entities. As a result, zookeeper clients must rely on timeout to identify failures.

Dead zookeeper process (daemon): since OS will respond to closed TCP port, client will get “connection refused” upon socket connect or “peer reset” on socket I/O. Client immediately notice that the other end failed.

 

18) What happens to ZK sessions while the cluster is down?

A) Imagine that a client is connected to ZK with a 5 second session timeout, and the administrator brings the entire ZK cluster down for an upgrade. The cluster is down for several minutes, and then is restarted.

In this scenario, the client is able to reconnect and refresh its session. Because session timeouts are tracked by the leader, the session starts counting down again with a fresh timeout when the cluster is restarted. So, as long as the client connects within the first 5 seconds after a leader is elected, it will reconnect without an expiration, and any ephemeral nodes it had prior to the downtime will be maintained.

The same behavior is exhibited when the leader crashes and a new one is elected. In the limit, if the leader is flip-flopping back and forth quickly, sessions will never expire since their timers are getting constantly reset.

19) What are the different ZKClientBindings?

A) ZooKeeper ships with C, Java, Perl and Python client bindings, here are a list of client bindings that are available from the community are,

Scala, C#, Node.js, Twisted/Python, Python (no C dependency), Erlang, Haskell, Ruby, Go, Lua.

 

20) Can you list some useful Zookeeper tools?

A) zkconf – generate configuration for a ZooKeeper ensemble
zk-smoketest – smoketest or latencytest a ZooKeeper ensemble (uses zkpython)
zookeeper_dashboard – web dashboard for ZooKeeper ensemble (uses zkpython & django)
zktop – monitor ZooKeeper in realtime
zkexamples – phunt’s “random examples of useful bits of ZooKeeper ephemera”
SPM for ZooKeeper – Performance Monitoring and Alerting for ZooKeeper

Advanced ZooKeeper Interview Questions For Experienced

21) What is Cages?

A) Cages ia a distributed synchronization library for Zookeeper. Cages is a Java library of distributed synchronization primitives that uses the Apache ZooKeeper system. If you can run a ZooKeeper machine or cluster, then you can use Cages to synchronize and coordinate data access, data manipulation and data processing, configuration change and more esoteric things like cluster membership across multiple machines.

22) What is BookKeeper?

A) BookKeeper is a system to reliably log streams of records. It is designed to store write ahead logs, such as those found in database or database like applications. In fact, the Hadoop NameNode inspired BookKeeper. The NameNode logs changes to the in-memory namespace data structures to the local disk before they are applied in memory. However logging the changes locally means that if the NameNode fails the log will be inaccessible. We found that by using BookKeeper, the NameNode can log to distributed storage devices in a way that yields higher availability and performance. Although it was designed for the NameNode, BookKeeper can be used for any application that needs strong durability guarantees with high performance and has a single writer.

23) What are the bookkeeper elements and concepts?

A) BookKeeper uses four basic elements:

  • Ledger
  • BookKeeper Client
  • Bookie
  • Metadata Storage Service

24) What is a Ledger in BookKeeper?

A) Ledger : A ledger is a sequence of entries, and each entry is a sequence of bytes. Entries are written sequentially to a ledger and at most once. Consequently, ledgers have an append-only semantics;

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 25) What is a BookKeeper client in BookKeeper?

A) BookKeeper client : A client runs along with a BookKeeper application, and it enables applications to execute operations on ledgers, such as creating a ledger and writing to it;

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 26) What is a Bookie in BookKeeper?

A) Bookie : A bookie is a BookKeeper storage server. Bookies store the content of ledgers. For any given ledger L, we call an ensemble the group of bookies storing the content of L. For performance, we store on each bookie of an ensemble only a fragment of a ledger. That is, we stripe when writing entries to a ledger such that each entry is written to sub-group of bookies of the ensemble.

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 27) What is Metadata storage service in BookKeeper?

A) Metadata storage service : BookKeeper requires a metadata storage service to store information related to ledgers and available bookies. We currently use ZooKeeper for such a task.

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 28) Why not just use zookeeper for everything?

A) There are a number of reasons:

1. Zookeeper’s log is only exposed through a tree like interface. It can be hard to shoehorn your application into this.

2. A zookeeper ensemble of multiple machines is limited to one log. You may want one log per resource, which will become expensive very quickly.

3. Adding extra machines to a zookeeper ensemble does not increase capacity nor throughput.

Bookkeeper can be viewed as a means of exposing zookeeper’s replicated log to applications in a scalable fashion. However, we still use zookeeper to maintain consistency guarantees.

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 29) What is Closing out ledgers?

A) The process of closing out the ledger and finding the last entry is difficult due to the durability guarantees of BookKeeper:

If an entry has been successfully recorded, it must be readable.
If an entry is read once, it must always be available to be read.
If the ledger was closed gracefully, ZooKeeper will have the last entry and everything will work well. But, if the BookKeeper client that was writing the ledger dies, there is some recovery that needs to take place.

ZooKeeper Interview Questions # 30) Describe how HBase uses ZooKeeper?

A) HBase clients find the cluster to connect to by asking zookeeper. The only configuration a client needs is the zk quorum to connect to. Masters and hbase slave nodes (regionservers) all register themselves with zk. If their znode evaporates, the master or regionserver is consided lost and repair begins. Source

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