** Python Hidden Features** are a set of different functions which can be performed by manipulating different objects in Python. Learn more here.

## Python Hidden Features: Operator Overloading

Everything in Python is an object. Each object has some special internal methods which it uses to interact with other objects. Generally, these methods follow the **action** naming convention. Collectively, this is termed as the Python Data Model.

You can overload any of these methods. This is commonly used in operator overloading in Python. Below is an example of operator overloading using Python’s data model. The Vector class creates a simple vector of two variables. We’ll add appropriate support for mathematical operations of two vectors using operator overloading.

class Vector(object):

definit(self, x, y):

self.x = x

self.y = y

defadd(self, v):

Addition with another vector.

return Vector(self.x + v.x, self.y + v.y)

defsub(self, v):

Subtraction with another vector.

return Vector(self.x - v.x, self.y - v.y)

defmul(self, s):

Multiplication with a scalar. return Vector(self.x * s, self.y * s)

defdiv(self, s):

Division with a scalar. float_s = float(s)

return Vector(self.x / float_s, self.y / float_s)

deffloordiv(self, s):

Division with a scalar (value floored). return Vector(self.x // s, self.y // s)

defrepr(self):

Print friendly representation of Vector class. Else, it would

show up like, <main.Vector instance at 0x01DDDDC8>. return '' % (self.x, self.y, )

a = Vector(3, 5)

b = Vector(2, 7)

print a + b # Output:

print b - a # Output:

print b * 1.3 # Output:

print a // 17 # Output:

print a / 17 # Output:

The above example demonstrates overloading of basic numeric operators. A comprehensive list can be found here.