DevOps Interview Questions And Answers 2020[Latest]

DevOps Interview Questions And Answers prepared from Codingcompiler experts. These DevOps interview questions were asked in various interviews conducted by top multinational companies across the globe. We hope that these interview questions on DevOps will help you in cracking your next job interview. All the best and happy learning.

In this article you’ll learn
DevOps Interview Questions
DevOps Interview Questions And Answers
The Best DevOps Interview Questions And Answers
Top DevOps Interview Questions And Answers
Frequently Asked DevOps Interview Questions And Answers

DevOps Interview Questions

1. What do you know about DevOps?
2. What is the need for DevOps?
3. In terms of development and infrastructure, mention the core operations of DevOps.

4. How is DevOps different from Agile / SDLC?
5. What is the most important thing DevOps helps us achieve?
6. What are some technical and business benefits of DevOps work culture?
7. How will you approach a project that needs to implement DevOps?
8. What is the role of configuration management in DevOps?
9. What is Version control?
10. What is the role of AWS in DevOps?


DevOps Interview Questions And Answers

1. What do you know about DevOps?

Answers: 

Your answer must be simple and straightforward. Begin by explaining the growing importance of DevOps in the IT industry. Discuss how such an approach aims to synergize the efforts of the development and operations teams to accelerate the delivery of software products, with a minimal failure rate. Include how DevOps is a value-added practice, where development and operations engineers join hands throughout the product or service lifecycle, right from the design stage to the point of deployment.



2. What is the need for DevOps?

Answer: According to me, this answer should start by explaining the general market trend. Instead of releasing big sets of features, companies are trying to see if small features can be transported to their customers through a series of release trains. This has many advantages like quick feedback from customers, better quality of software etc. which in turn leads to high customer satisfaction. To achieve this, companies are required to:

  1. Increase deployment frequency
  2. Lower failure rate of new releases
  3. Shortened lead time between fixes
  4. Faster mean time to recovery in the event of new release crashing

DevOps fulfills all these requirements and helps in achieving seamless software delivery. You can give examples of companies like Etsy, Google and Amazon which have adopted DevOps to achieve levels of performance that were unthinkable even five years ago. They are doing tens, hundreds or even thousands of code deployments per day while delivering world class stability, reliability and security.

If I have to test your knowledge on DevOps, you should know the difference between Agile and DevOps. The next question is directed towards that.

3. In terms of development and infrastructure, mention the core operations of DevOps.

Answer: Core operations of DevOps include:

• Development
• Version Control
• Testing
• Integration
• Deployment
• Delivery
• Configuration
• Monitoring
• Feedback

4. How is DevOps different from Agile / SDLC?

Answer: I would advise you to go with the below explanation:

Agile is a set of values and principles about how to produce i.e. develop software. Example: if you have some ideas and you want to turn those ideas into working software, you can use the Agile values and principles as a way to do that. But, that software might only be working on a developer’s laptop or in a test environment. You want a way to quickly, easily and repeatably move that software into production infrastructure, in a safe and simple way. To do that you need DevOps tools and techniques.

You can summarize by saying Agile software development methodology focuses on the development of software but DevOps on the other hand is responsible for development as well as deployment of the software in the safest and most reliable way possible. Here’s a blog that will give you more information on the evolution of DevOps.

Now remember, you have included DevOps tools in your previous answer so be prepared to answer some questions related to that.

5. What is the most important thing DevOps helps us achieve?

Answer: According to me, the most important thing that DevOps helps us achieve is to get the changes into production as quickly as possible while minimizing risks in software quality assurance and compliance.

However, you can add many other positive effects of DevOps. For example, clearer communication and better working relationships between teams i.e. both the Ops team and Dev team collaborate together to deliver good quality software which in turn leads to higher customer satisfaction.

6. What are some technical and business benefits of DevOps work culture?

Answer: Technical benefits:

Continuous software delivery
Less complex problems to fix
Faster bug resolution

Business benefits:

Faster delivery of features for customer satisfaction
More stable operating environments
More time available to add product value


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7. How will you approach a project that needs to implement DevOps?

Answer: The following standard approaches can be used to implement DevOps in a specific project:

Stage 1

An assessment of the existing process and implementation for about two to three weeks to identify areas of improvement so that the team can create a road map for the implementation.

Stage 2

Create a proof of concept (PoC). Once it is accepted and approved, the team can start on the actual implementation and roll-out of the project plan.

Stage 3

The project is now ready for implementing DevOps by using version control/integration/testing/deployment/delivery and monitoring followed step by step.

By following the proper steps for version control, integration, testing, deployment, delivery, and monitoring, the project is now ready for DevOps implementation. 


8. What is the role of configuration management in DevOps?


Answer:

  • Enables management of and changes to multiple systems.
  • Standardizes resource configurations, which in turn, manage IT infrastructure.
  • It helps with the administration and management of multiple servers and maintains the integrity of the entire infrastructure.

9. What is Version control?

Answer: This is probably the easiest question you will face in the interview. My suggestion is to first give a definition of Version control. It is a system that records changes to a file or set of files over time so that you can recall specific versions later. Version control systems consist of a central shared repository where teammates can commit changes to a file or set of file. Then you can mention the uses of version control.

Version control allows you to:

  • Revert files back to a previous state.
  • Revert the entire project back to a previous state.
  • Compare changes over time.
  • See who last modified something that might be causing a problem.
  • Who introduced an issue and when.

10. What is the role of AWS in DevOps?

Answer: AWS has the following role in DevOps:

Flexible services – Provides ready-to-use, flexible services without the need to install or set up the software.

Built for scale – You can manage a single instance or scale to thousands using AWS services.

Automation – AWS lets you automate tasks and processes, giving you more time to innovate

Secure – Using AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), you can set user permissions and policies.

Large partner ecosystem – AWS supports a large ecosystem of partners that integrate with and extend AWS services.

The Best DevOps Interview Questions And Answers

11. Name three important DevOps KPIs.

Answer; The three important KPIs are as follows:

Meantime to failure recovery – This is the average time taken to recover from a failure.

Deployment frequency – The frequency in which the deployment occurs. 

Percentage of failed deployments – The number of times the deployment fails.

12. Name some of the most important DevOps tools?

Answer: 

• Git

• Maven

• Selenium

• Jenkins

• Docker

• Puppet

• Chef

• Ansible

• Nagios

13. How is IaC implemented using AWS?

Answer: Start by talking about the age-old mechanisms of writing commands onto script files and testing them in a separate environment before deployment and how this approach is being replaced by IaC. Similar to the codes written for other services, with the help of AWS, IaC allows developers to write, test, and maintain infrastructure entities in a descriptive manner, using formats such as JSON or YAML. This enables easier development and faster deployment of infrastructure changes.

14. Which VCS tool you are comfortable with?

Answer: You can just mention the VCS tool that you have worked on like this: “I have worked on Git and one major advantage it has over other VCS tools like SVN is that it is a distributed version control system.”

Distributed VCS tools do not necessarily rely on a central server to store all the versions of a project’s files. Instead, every developer “clones” a copy of a repository and has the full history of the project on their own hard drive.

15. In Git how do you revert a commit that has already been pushed and made public?

Answer: There can be two answers to this question so make sure that you include both because any of the below options can be used depending on the situation:

Remove or fix the bad file in a new commit and push it to the remote repository. This is the most natural way to fix an error. Once you have made necessary changes to the file, commit it to the remote repository for that I will use

git commit -m “commit message”

Create a new commit that undoes all changes that were made in the bad commit.to do this I will use a command

git revert <name of bad commit>

16. What is Git bisect? How can you use it to determine the source of a (regression) bug?

Answer: I will suggest you to first give a small definition of Git bisect, Git bisect is used to find the commit that introduced a bug by using binary search. Command for Git bisect is

git bisect <subcommand> <options>

Now since you have mentioned the command above, explain what this command will do, This command uses a binary search algorithm to find which commit in your project’s history introduced a bug. You use it by first telling it a “bad” commit that is known to contain the bug, and a “good” commit that is known to be before the bug was introduced. Then Git bisect picks a commit between those two endpoints and asks you whether the selected commit is “good” or “bad”. It continues narrowing down the range until it finds the exact commit that introduced the change.

17. Name three important DevOps KPIs.

Answer: Three of the most common DevOps KPIs are:

  • Mean time to failure recovery
  • Deployment frequency
  • Percentage of failed deployments

18. How will you know in Git if a branch has already been merged into master?

Answer: I will suggest you to include both the below mentioned commands:

git branch –merged lists the branches that have been merged into the current branch.

git branch –no-merged lists the branches that have not been merged.

19. Why do you need a Continuous Integration of Dev & Testing?

Answer: For this answer, you should focus on the need of Continuous Integration. My suggestion would be to mention the below explanation in your answer:

Continuous Integration of Dev and Testing improves the quality of software, and reduces the time taken to deliver it, by replacing the traditional practice of testing after completing all development. It allows Dev team to easily detect and locate problems early because developers need to integrate code into a shared repository several times a day (more frequently). Each check-in is then automatically tested.

20. Explain how you can move or copy Jenkins from one server to another?

Answer: I will approach this task by copying the jobs directory from the old server to the new one. There are multiple ways to do that; I have mentioned them below:

You can:

Move a job from one installation of Jenkins to another by simply copying the corresponding job directory.

Make a copy of an existing job by making a clone of a job directory by a different name.

Rename an existing job by renaming a directory. Note that if you change a job name you will need to change any other job that tries to call the renamed job.

Top DevOps Interview Questions And Answers

21. Why Has DevOps Gained Prominence over the Last Few Years?

Answer: Before talking about the growing popularity of DevOps, discuss the current industry scenario. Begin with some examples of how big players such as Netflix and Facebook are investing in DevOps to automate and accelerate application deployment and how this has helped them grow their business. Using Facebook as an example, you would point to Facebook’s continuous deployment and code ownership models and how these have helped it scale up but ensure the quality of experience at the same time. Hundreds of lines of code are implemented without affecting quality, stability, and security.

Your next use case should be Netflix. This streaming and on-demand video company follow similar practices with fully automated processes and systems. Mention the user base of these two organizations: Facebook has 2 billion users while Netflix streams online content to more than 100 million users worldwide.

These are great examples of how DevOps can help organizations to ensure higher success rates for releases, reduce the lead time between bug fixes, streamline and continuous delivery through automation, and an overall reduction in manpower costs.

22. Can you name some of the most-used DevOps tools?


Answer: Following is a list of some of the most widely used DevOps tools:

Ansible – A configuration management and application deployment tool

Chef – A configuration management and application deployment tool

Docker – A containerization tool

Git – A version control system (VCS) tool

Jenkins – A continuous integration (CI) tool

Jira – An agile team collaboration tool

Nagios – A continuous monitoring tool

Puppet – A configuration management and application deployment tool

Selenium – A continuous testing (CT) tool

23. What do you understand by Puppet in DevOps?

Answer: It is a configuration management tool that is used for automating administration tasks. Puppet makes use of the Master-Slave architecture in which the two entities communicate via an encrypted channel.

System admins need to perform a lot of repetitive tasks, notably installing and configuring servers. Writing scripts for automating such tasks is an option but it becomes hectic when the infrastructure is large. Configuration management is a great workaround for this.

Puppet helps in configuring, deploying, and managing servers. Not only does it make such redundant tasks easier but also cuts a significant portion of the total work time. The mature configuration management tool:

Continuously checks whether the needed configuration for a host is in place or not. If altered, the configuration is automatically reverted back

Defines distinct configurations for every host

Does dynamic scaling (up and down) of machines

Provides control over all the configured machines so that a centralized change can automatically get propagated to all of them

24. What does CAMS in DevOps stand for?

Answer: The acronym CAMS is usually used for describing the core creeds of DevOps methodology. It stands for:

  • Culture
  • Automation
  • Measurement
  • Sharing

25. What do you understand by containers?


Answer: Containers are a form of lightweight virtualization that help in providing isolation among processes. Containers are heavier than a chroot but lighter than a hypervisor.

26. What are post mortem meetings?


Answer: Many times there is a need to discuss what went wrong during a DevOps process. For this, post mortem meetings are arranged. These meetings yield steps that should be taken to avoid the same failure or set of failures in the future for which the meeting was arranged in the first place.

27.  How does HTTP work?

Answer: HTTP or Hypertext Transfer Protocol works in a client–server model like the most other protocols. HTTP provides a way to interact with web resources by transmitting hypertext messages between clients and servers.


28. Can one consider DevOps as an Agile methodology?

Answer: DevOps can be considered as complementary to the Agile methodology but not completely similar.

29. Can you tell me the advantages of using Git?

Answer:
Data redundancy and replication

High availability

Only one Git directory per repository

Superior disk utilization and network performance

Collaboration friendly

Can be used for any sort of projects

30. I just made a bad git commit and made it public, and I need to revert the commit. Can you suggest me how to do that?

Answer: Here we can use the command:

git revert <name the commit you wish to revert>

This command is very helpful because we can revert any commands just by adding the commit ID.

Frequently Asked DevOps Interview Questions And Answers

31. Can you tell me how to squash the last n commits into a single commit? Is it even possible?

Answer: To squash the last n commits into a single commit, we can use:

git reset — soft HEAD~n &&

git commit

32. When should I use Selenium Grid?

Answer: It can be used to execute the same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers, concurrently, in order to achieve distributed test execution. It allows testing under different environments, remarkably saving the execution time.

33. Which of the following CLI commands can be used to rename files?

Answer:
git rm
git mv
git rm -r
None of the above

The correct answer is git mv

34. How do you find a list of files that have been changed in a particular commit?

Answer:
The command to get a list of files that have been changed in a particular commit is:

git diff-tree –r {commit hash}

Example: git diff-tree –r 87e673f21b

-r flag instructs the command to list individual files

commit hash will list all the files that were changed or added in that commit

35. What is Jenkinsfile?

Answer: Jenkinsfile contains the definition of a Jenkins pipeline and is checked into the source control repository. It is a text file.

It allows code review and iteration on the pipeline.
It permits an audit trail for the pipeline.
There is a single source of truth for the pipeline, which can be viewed and edited.

36.  Can DevOps be applied to a Waterfall process? Explain the significance of the Agile process in DevOps implementation.

Answer: In the waterfall process, as all of us are aware initially complete Requirements are gathered, next the System is designed, Implementation of the System is then done followed by System testing and deployed to the end-users. In this process, the problem was that there was a huge waiting time for build and deployment which made it very difficult to get the feedback.

The solution to the above problem was that the Agile process has to bring in agility in both development and operations. The agile process could be the principal or a certain pre-requisite may be required for DevOps implementation. DevOps goes hand in hand with the Agile process.

The focus area is to release the software in a very timely manner with shorter release cycles and quick feedback. So, the agile process focus will mainly be on speed and in DevOps, it works well with the automation of various tools.

37. What is configuration management in terms of infrastructure and mention a few popular tools used?

Answer: Configuration management consists of practices and the various tools involved to automate the delivery and infrastructure operations. It is all about keeping the server ready (Example Installing system packages, network configuration settings) for application deployment once the application is developed.

So the Ops or the system admin needs to ensure parity in different environments (Dev, QA, PROD, etc…) by provisioning the systems.

Tools Used in this space to automate the tasks of configuration management described above are Chef / Puppet / Ansible.

39. What is continuous testing and its benefits?

Answer: Continuous testing is the practice of applying automated tests early, gradually and adequately in the software delivery pipeline. In a typical CI/CD workflow, builds are released in small batches. Therefore, it is impractical to manually perform test cases for each delivery. Automated continuous testing eliminates the manual steps and turn them into automated routines, which reduces human effort. That’s why automated continuous testing is essential for the DevOps culture.

Benefits of continuous testing:

  • Ensures the quality and speed of the builds.
  • Enables faster software delivery and a continuous feedback mechanism.
  • Detect errors as soon as they occur in the system.
  • Reduce business risks. Evaluate potential problems before they become real problems.

40. Explain how DevOps is helpful for developers


Answer: In a world without DevOps, the workflow of a developer would start by building up new codes, ship and integrate them, then it’s the operation team’s duty to package and deploy the codes. After that, they will have to wait for feedback. And if things go wrong, they’ll have to go back and do it all over again because of bugs. Along the line is countless manual communication between different teams involved in the project.

Applying DevOps reduces the developer‘s tasks down to building codes only, as the CI/CD practices have consolidated and automated the remaining tasks. Combining the engineering and operation teams helps create better communication and collaboration as processes become more transparent and accessible by all team members.

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