Hibernate Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced

75 Hibernate Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced 2019. Here in this post coding compiler presenting a list of 75 advanced hibernate interview questions for freshers, 1 year experience, 2 years experience, 3 year experience, 4 year experience, 5 year experience.

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ASP.NET Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced

100 ASP.NET Interview Questions and Answers 2019. This list includes ASP.NET interview questions for freshers, ASP.NET interview questions for 1 year experience, ASP.NET interview questions for 2 years experience, ASP.NET interview questions for 3 years experience, ASP.NET interview questions for 4 years experience, ASP.NET interview questions for 5 years experience.

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Advanced PHP Interview Questions And Answers 2019

PHP Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced 2019. Here in this article, we are providing a list of 135 real-time scenario based PHP interview questions for freshers and professionals. This list includes PHP interview questions for 1 year experience, 2 year experience, 3 year experience, 4 year experience, 5 year experienced PHP developers and experienced PHP programmers.

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Kubernetes Interview Questions And Answers 2019

Kubernetes Interview Questions And Answers 2019. If you are looking for Docker Kubernetes Devops Interview Questions, here in this article Coding compiler sharing 31 interview questions on Kubernetes. These Kubernetes questions will help you to crack your next Kubernetes job interview. All the best for your future and happy learning.

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Advanced CEH Interview Questions And Answers

47 CEH Interview Questions and Answers For Experienced 2018. If you are searching for Certified Ethical Hacker interview questions, this article will help you with 47 real-time scenario based CEH certification exam questions to crack your next Ethical hacker job interview. Coding compiler wishing you all the very best for your future and happy learning.

CEH Interview Questions

What is Ethical Hacking and an Ethical Hacker?

Ethical hacking and ethical hacker are terms used to describe hacking performed by a company or individual to help identify potential threats on a computer or network. An ethical hacker attempts to bypass system security and search for any weak points that could be exploited by malicious hackers.

Ethical hacking refers to the act of locating weaknesses and vulnerabilities of computer and information systems by duplicating the intent and actions of malicious hackers. Ethical hacking is also known as penetration testing, intrusion testing, or red teaming.

What are the tools used for ethical hacking?

These are the few tools used for ethical hacking.

  1. Metasploit
  2. Acunetix is a web vulnerability scanner (WVS) that scans and finds out the flaws in a website that could prove fatal.
  3. Nmap.
  4. Wireshark.
  5. oclHashcat.
  6. Nessus Vulnerability Scanner.
  7. Maltego.

Why is ethical hacking so important?

As opposed to malicious “black hat” hacking, ethical “white hat” hacking (also called penetration testing) involves using computer hacking skills to identify network security vulnerabilities and patch security holes before anyone can abuse them.

What are the stages of ethical hacking?

Here is a brief overview of the five phases of penetration testing (ethical hacking):

Phase 1 | Reconnaissance. Reconnaissance is the act of gathering preliminary data or intelligence on your target.
Phase 2 | Scanning.
Phase 3 | Gaining Access.
Phase 4 | Maintaining Access.
Phase 5 | Covering Tracks.

What are the types of hacking?

Types of Hacking are,

  • Website Hacking
  • Network Hacking
  • Ethical Hacking
  • Email Hacking
  • Password Hacking
  • Online Banking Hacking
  • Computer Hacking

What is Website Hacking?

Hacking a website means taking control from the website owner to a person who hacks the website.

What is Network Hacking?

Network Hacking is generally means gathering information about domain by using tools like Telnet, Ns look UP, Ping, Tracert, Netstat, etc… over the network.

Certified Ethical Hacker Interview Questions

What is Ethical Hacking?

Ethical hacking is where a person hacks to find weaknesses in a system and then usually patches them.

What is Email Hacking?

Email hacking is illicit access to an email account or email correspondence.

What is Password Hacking?

Password Hacking Password cracking is the process of recovering secret passwords from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system.

What is Online Banking Hacking?

Online banking Hacking Unauthorized accessing bank accounts without knowing the password or without permission of account holder is known as Online banking hacking.

What is Computer Hacking?

Computer Hacking is when files on your computer are viewed, created, or edited without your authorization.

What is footprinting in hacking?

Footprinting is the first and most convenient way that hackers use to gather information. about computer systems and the companies they belong to. The purpose of footprinting to. learn as much as you can about a system, it’s remote access capabilities, its ports and. services, and the aspects of its security.

What is scanning in ethical hacking?

After footprinting and reconnaissance, scanning is the second phase of information gathering that hackers use to size up a network. Scanning is where they dive deeper into the system to look for valuable data and services in a specific IP address range.

What is Cowpatty?

coWPAtty Package Description. Implementation of an offline dictionary attack against WPA/WPA2 networks using PSK-based authentication (e.g. WPA-Personal). Cowpatty can implement an accelerated attack if a precomputed PMK file is available for the SSID that is being assessed.

Which programming language is used for hacking?

It’s best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. Besides being the most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and each will educate you in valuable ways.

Certified Ethical Hacker Practice Questions

Why is python used for hacking?

Most widely used scripting language for hackers is Python. Python has some important features that make it particularly useful for hacking, but probably most importantly, it has some pre-built libraries that provide some powerful functionality.

What programs do you use to hack?

Metasploit by Rapid 7.
Nessus Vulnerability Scanner.
Cain and Able Hacking software.
Kali Linux Penetration software.
Hydra Hacking software.

What are the types of hacking attacks?

Here are the some important hacking techniques that are commonly used to get your personal information in an unauthorized way.
Denial of Service (DoS\DDoS)
Waterhole attacks.
Fake WAP.
Eavesdropping (Passive Attacks)
Virus, Trojan etc.
ClickJacking Attacks.

What are three types of hackers?

The three types of hackers are the white hat hacker, the grey hat hacker, and the black hat hacker. Each type of hacker hacks for a different reason, a cause, or both.

Which operating system is best for hacking?

  1. Kali Linux: Developed by Offensive Security as the rewrite of BackTrack, Kali Linux distro tops our list of the best operating systems for hacking purposes.
  2. Parrot Security OS
  3. BackBox
  4. Samurai Web Testing Framework
  5. Pentoo Linux
  6. DEFT Linux
  7. Caine
  8. Network Security Toolkit (NST)

What are the types of cyber attacks?

Let’s examine eight of the most common cyber attacks that your business could face and ways to avoid them.

  • Malware.
  • Phishing.
  • Password Attacks.
  • Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks.
  • “Man in the Middle” (MITM)
  • Drive-By Downloads.
  • Malvertising.
  • Rogue Software.

Information Security Interview Questions And Answers

What is a script kitty?

In programming and hacking culture, a script kiddie or skiddie is an unskilled individual who uses scripts or programs developed by others to attack computer systems and networks and deface websites.

What is a blue hat hacker?

A blue hat hacker is someone outside computer security consulting firms who bug tests a system prior to its launch, looking for exploits so they can be closed. Blue Hat Hacker also refers to the security professional invited by Microsoft to find vulnerabilities in Windows.

What is cyber attacks with examples?

A cyberattack is any type of offensive manoeuvre employed by nation-states, individuals, groups, or organizations that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, and/or personal computer devices by various means of malicious acts usually originating from an anonymous source.

What are the types of password attacks?

  • Guessing. Simple, repeated attempts using common passwords or known facts about the user.
  • Stealing. Physically or electronically acquiring a users password – can include sniffing of network communications.
  • Dictionary Attack.
  • Brute Force Attack.
  • Rainbow Tables.
  • Hybrid Password Attack.
  • Birthday Attack.

What is a gray hat hacker?

The term “grey hat”, “greyhat” or “gray hat” (gureihato) refers to a computer hacker or computer security expert who may sometimes violate laws or typical ethical standards, but does not have the malicious intent typical of a black hat hacker.

What is a Cyberextortionist?

Cyberextortion is a crime involving an attack or threat of attack coupled with a demand for money to avert or stop the attack. Cyberextortion can take many forms.

What is the white hat hacker?

The term “white hat” in Internet slang refers to an ethical computer hacker, or a computer security expert, who specializes in penetration testing and in other testing methodologies to ensure the security of an organization’s information systems.

What is a brute force hack?

Brute force (also known as brute force cracking) is a trial and error method used by application programs to decode encrypted data such as passwords or Data Encryption Standard (DES) keys, through exhaustive effort (using brute force) rather than employing intellectual strategies.

What can an ethical hacker do?

An ethical hacker is a computer and networking expert who systematically attempts to penetrate a computer system or network on behalf of its owners for the purpose of finding security vulnerabilities that a malicious hacker could potentially exploit.

Top Ethical Hacking Interview Questions

What is meant by spoofing attack?

A spoofing attack is when a malicious party impersonates another device or user on a network in order to launch attacks against network hosts, steal data, spread malware or bypass access controls. There are several different types of spoofing attacks that malicious parties can use to accomplish this.

What are the different types of spoofing?

Types of Spoofing Attacks
ARP Spoofing Attack. The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to translate IP addresses into Media Access Control (MAC) addresses in order to be properly transmitted.
DNS Spoofing Attack.
IP Spoofing Attack.

What is difference between sniffing and spoofing?

To start with, there are two common types of Internet security breaches, sniffing and spoofing. *Sniffing is the act of intercepting and inspecting data packets using sniffers (Software or hardware devices) over the Net. On the other hand, *Spoofing is the act of identity impersonation.

What is footprinting in hacking?

Footprinting is the first and most convenient way that hackers use to gather information. about computer systems and the companies they belong to. The purpose of footprinting to. learn as much as you can about a system, it’s remote access capabilities, its ports and. services, and the aspects of its security.

What is footprinting in ethical hacking?

Footprinting (also known as reconnaissance) is the technique used for gathering information about computer systems and the entities they belong to. To get this information, a hacker might use various tools and technologies. This information is very useful to a hacker who is trying to crack a whole system.

What is the difference between phishing and spoofing?

Phishing and spoofing are clearly different beneath the surface. One downloads malware to your computer or network, and the other tricks you into giving up sensitive financial information to a cyber crook. Phishing is a method of retrieval, while spoofing is a means of delivery.

What is reconnaissance in the world of hacking?

The process of collecting information about an intended target of a malicious hack by probing the target system. Active reconnaissance typically involves port scanning in order to find weaknesses in the target system (i.e., which ports are left vulnerable and/or if there are ways around the firewall and routers).

What is active and passive reconnaissance?

Passive reconnaissance is an attempt to gain information about targeted computers and networks without actively engaging with the systems. In active reconnaissance, in contrast, the attacker engages with the target system, typically conducting a port scan to determine find any open ports.

What is enumeration in hacking?

Network enumeration is a computing activity in which usernames and info on groups, shares, and services of networked computers are retrieved. It should not be confused with network mapping, which only retrieves information about which servers are connected to a specific network and what operating system runs on them.

Real-Time Ethical Hacking Scenario Based Interview Questions

What is network enumeration?

Network Enumeration is the discovery of hosts/devices on a network, they tend to use overt discovery protocols such as ICMP and SNMP to gather information, they may also scan various ports on remote hosts for looking for well known services in an attempt to further identify the function of a remote host.

What is a banner grab?

Banner grabbing is a technique used to glean information about a computer system on a network and the services running on its open ports. Administrators can use this to take inventory of the systems and services on their network.

What is operating system fingerprinting?

OS fingerprinting is the process of determining the operating system used by a host on a network.

What is a TCP IP fingerprint?

TCP/IP stack fingerprinting is the passive collection of configuration attributes from a remote device during standard layer 4 network communications. The combination of parameters may then be used to infer the remote machine’s operating system (aka, OS fingerprinting), or incorporated into a device fingerprint.

Why is ethical hacking so important?

As opposed to malicious “black hat” hacking, ethical “white hat” hacking (also called penetration testing) involves using computer hacking skills to identify network security vulnerabilities and patch security holes before anyone can abuse them.

Who are the best hacker in the world today?

Here is the list of top hackers.

  1. Gary McKinnon.
  2. LulzSec.
  3. Adrian Lamo.
  4. Mathew Bevan and Richard Pryce.
  5. Jonathan James.
  6. Kevin Poulsen.
  7. Kevin Mitnick.
  8. Anonymous.


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CyberArk Interview Questions And Answers

35 CyberArk Interview Questions and Answers For Experienced 2018. If you are searching for CyberArk security interview questions, this article will help you with 35 real-time scenario based CyberArk certification interview questions to crack your next CyberArk job interview. Coding compiler wishing you all the very best for your future and happy learning.

CyberArk Interview Questions

What is CyberArk?

Ans: CyberArk is an information security company offering Privileged Account Security. The company’s technology is utilized primarily in the financial services, energy, retail and healthcare markets.

What is the use of CyberArk?

Ans: CyberArk Enterprise Password Vault, a component of the CyberArk Privileged Account Security Solution, is designed to discover, secure, rotate and control access to privileged account passwords used to access systems throughout the enterprise IT environment.

What is CyberArk viewfinity?

Ans: CyberArk Viewfinity with enhanced protection is now CyberArk Endpoint Privilege Manager. Enforcing privilege security on the endpoint is a fundamental part of your security program.

What is a password vault?

Ans: A password vault is a software program that keeps a number of passwords in a secure digital location. By encrypting the password storage, the password vault offers users the ability to use a single master password for accessing a number of different passwords used for different websites or services.

What is CyberArk viewfinity?

Ans: CyberArk Viewfinity with enhanced protection is now CyberArk Endpoint Privilege Manager. Enforcing privilege security on the endpoint is a fundamental part of your security program.

What is identity and access management?

Ans: Identity management, also known as identity and access management (IAM) is, in computer security, the security and business discipline that “enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times and for the right reasons”.

What is viewfinity used for?

Ans: Viewfinity is a suite of integrated management tools that simplify the processes involved in privilege management, enabling administrators to more effectively protect PCs from unauthorized use and providing granular control over who can do what on servers and endpoints across the enterprise.

Advanced CyberArk Interview Questions For Experienced

How many times wrong Password count access suspension can be increased?

Ans: we can increase wrong password count access suspension upto 99 times.

To allow specific user to access a specific safe the user need to have

Ans: Safe ownership access to be given

What’s the minimum password complexity required for CyberArk authentication using internal CyberArk scheme?

Ans: There should be Minimum one lowerchase alphabet character, one uppercase alphabet character, one numeric character

What are the primary functions of CyberArk?

CyberArk Enterprise Password Vault, an element of the CyberArk Privileged Account Security Solution, has been designed to discover, secure, rotate and control access to confidential account passwords used to access any system throughout the organization in its Information Technology environment.

To create a PIM policy, what need to be done ?

Ans: We should Create CPM Policy, PIM Policy, and Create a PSM connection component & enable the PSM if needed

CyberArk can manage following Database’s password

Oracle DB
All of above
Ans: All of above

User with sufficient rights can do what about the privilege account registered

Use the privilege account to directly connect to target system by clicking on connect button
Copy the password for other usage
Change the password by clicking on change button
Verify the password by clicking on verify button

What is BYOC?

Ans: Bring Your Own Client

What CyberArk’s modules responsible for recording session?

Ans: PSM

If CyberArk vault user changed his Active Directory password what will happened with his CyberArk account

Ans: Nothing will happen, If CyberArk uses LDAP authentication

Which Component used on all Cyberark solutions?

Ans: CyberArk Vault

CyberArk Certification Exam Questions

What are the CyberArk Vault protection layers?

Ans: Following are the CyberArk Vault Protection Layers:

Firewall & Code-Data Isolation
Encryted Network Communication & Visual Security Audit Trail
Strong Authentication & Granular Access Control
File Encryption & Dual Control Security
About privilege account request/approval or also known as dual control, which following statement is false

Requester will receive email notification upon approval
Approvals is working in hierarchy
Request can be set for a specific time & date
Approvals is working in minimum number of approvers
Maximum request access for 5 consecutive days
Ans: Approvals is working in hierarchy

What CyberArk’s PIM stands for?

Ans: Privilege Identity Management

Can CyberArk change password in a text file?

Ans: Yes, if it is in plaintext or encrypted using known encryption algorithm

IS CyberArk PSM has web form capability?

Ans: Yes

What you need to have to enable auto password reconciliation policy?

Ans: Following should enable for auto password reconciliation policy in cyberark

Enable Password reconciliation for specific policy
Additional account on target server with sufficient rights
Automatic password verification shoud enable
Enable password reconciliation when password is unsync
What are User Directories that are supported by CyberArk?

Ans: User Directories that support CyberArk are:

Active Directory
Oracle Internet Directory
Novell eDirectory
IBM Tivoli DS
Bring Your Own Clients means

Ans: Bring Your Own Clients means

You can use any client to access target system if PSM enabled
PSM is flexible
CyberArk PSM covers more target system type other than others
Does OpenSSL heartbleed bug affecting CyberArk Vault ?

Ans: No, on all vesion

What are capabilities of PSM for SSH ?

Ans: PSM for SSH has the capability of Video recording, Command recording

What CyberArk PSM has web form capability means ?

Ans: CyberArk PSM has web form capability means, With a set of conditions, PSM connector can be integrated into web based application. By default PSM web capability only covers html login page with form id, input form for user/password and button name attribute

If PSM enabled for a specific policy, auditor user can terminate remote session currently active

Ans: Yes

What is the shortest time CPM can be configured to change password after each usage

Ans: 1 minute

Password management doesn’t consists of what action?

Ans: ENE integration

How CyberArk Vault can be managed?

Ans: CyberArk Vault can be managed using PrivateArk Client, PrivateArk Web Client, and Private Vault Web Access

What is CyberArk Vault Dual Control ?

Confirmation needed to open a safe
Confirmation needed to retrieve files
Confirmation needed to open a safe and to retrieve files
At least 1 safe owner who are authorized to confirm request
All of above
Ans: Confirmation needed to open a safe

Real-Time CyberArk Scenario Based Interview Questions

How long CyberArk Vault will kept deleted object until it reach true deletion stage ?

Ans: CyberArk vault will keep deleted object till 30 days.

What are User Accounts Enabled by Default?

None of above
Ans: Administrator

How to release user suspension?

Ans: To release user suspension –> Need to login using administrator account and activate the account.

BYOC applicable to which module ?

Ans: PSM

Which module used to replicate vault at production site to disaster recovery site ?

Ans: DR Module

What are the steps required to register a privilege account to CyberArk PIMS using PVWA :

Ans: Inorder to register to a priviliege accout we need to:

Create safe & define safe owner
Create PIM Policy
Create CPM & PSM Policy
Add account with its properties (username, password, address etc)
CyberArk Vault access control can be defined by

Ans: Safe, Folder, Object

Why PrivateArk Web Client limited only to Internet Explorer

Ans: Because it uses ActiveX

Mention 3 pilars of CYberArk solutions


Which CyberArk’s module is responsible for changing password

Ans: CPM

If a User was suspended, who is the user that able to revoke the suspension ?

Ans: Administrator

If a password request got approved why only notification sent to requester but not the password for the target system itself ?

Ans: Because of its Security concern, Email can be eavesdropped, Email can be redirected, Email may not be not secure.

CyberArk Tutorial Interview Questions

What is ENE integration

Ans: CyberArk email notification integration with existing email system

By default user will be suspended to login to the vault after entering … times of wrong password

Ans: 5 times

Inorder to enable LDAP user authentication which need to be configured

Ans: Directory mapping

What need to be done to enable PSM for a policy

Ans: We need to enable PSM option on specified policy, and need to add required PSM connection component

Can CyberArk can manage Facebook password & record Facebook session?

Ans: Yes

What are Authentication schemes supported by CyberArk Vault ?

Ans: Here are teh authentication schemes that are suppored by CyberArk vault – LDAP, Radius, PKI

What are the reasons for CyberArk vault user login access denied?

Ans: Wrong password, Wrong username, User suspension, Wrong authentication mode


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151 Advanced Appian Interview Questions and Answers

151 Appian Interview Questions and Answers For Experienced 2018. If you are searching for Appian BPM interview questions, this article will help you with 151 real-time scenario based Appian interview questions to crack your next Appian BPM job interview. Coding compiler wishing you all the very best for your future and happy learning.

Appian Interview Questions

  1. What Is Appian?
  2. What Do You Understand By Bpm?
  3. What Is Bpm Software?
  4. What Do You Understand By Association?
  5. What Do You Understand By Business Process Diagram(bpd)?
  • What Do You Understand By Business Process Model?
  • What Do You Understand By Business Process Modeling Notation?
  • What Do You Understand By Connecting Objects?
  • Name Any Top Compatitor Of Appian Bpm Suite?
  • What Are The Top Features Of Appian Bpm Suite?
  1. Is Bpm Appian An Open Source Application?
  2. What Do You Understand By Activities In Bpm Terms?
  3. What Do You Understand By Annotations?
  4. What Do You Understand By Artifacts?
  5. What Do You Understand By Data Object?
  6. What Do You Understand By Events?

Appian Interview Questions And Answers

What is Microsoft .NET Framework?

Microsoft’s framework for Web services and component software introduced in 2000 and pronounced “dot-net.” .NET is Microsoft’s approach to a comprehensive development and runtime environment similar to J2EE.

.NET supports all the Web-based features and functions, including XML and web services protocols such as SOAP and UDDI. .NET applications run on intranets as well as public Internet sites, thus .NET is an all-inclusive Web-oriented software architecture for internal and external use. Subsequent versions of Microsoft products (browsers, applications, Windows) were enhanced with support for .NET in some manner.

What is Activity in Appian?

Processes can be sub-divided into smaller and smaller units or sub-processes. We define activity as the smallest sub-process that a given business process team decides to illustrate on their process diagrams. (We could reverse that and say that a process is made up of one or more activities.)

Activities can consist of a single step, like approving a purchase request or placing a cap on a bottle passing on a production line. Other activities involve multiple steps, like filling out a form, or assembling a chair.

There is no consistency about how the various methodologies use terms like task and step, but, increasingly, the term activity is reserved for the smallest unit of analysis. A given activity could be performed by one or more employees, by a software system, or by some combination.

In the UML notation, both processes and activities are represented by rectangles with rounded corners. (See Business Process Hierarchy.) We sometimes indicate if activities are manual (normal line around rectangle), systems (bold line around rectangle) or mixed activities that involve both manual activities an systems (dashed line around activity rectangle).

What is Activity Cost Worksheet in Appian?

A grid or matrix that one can use to analyze the various costs of a set of activities. Activities are listed on the vertical axis and data about outputs, costs, times and problems are described for each activity.

What are Ad Hoc Workflow Systems in Appian?

Workflow systems that wait on users to indicate what should happen next. An insurance system might pull up documents for an underwriter only on request. Compare with Administrative and Transaction or Production Workflow Systems.

What are Administrative Workflow Systems in Appian?

Workflow systems that keep track of what individuals are doing and assign new tasks according to some set of rules. Compare with Ad Hoc and Transaction or Production Workflow Systems.

What is Application Programming Interface (API)?

An application programming interface (API) is a set of definitions of the ways one piece of computer software communicates with another. It is a method of achieving abstraction, usually (but not necessarily) between lower-level and higher-level software. APIs are implemented by writing function calls in the program, which provide the linkage to the required subroutine for execution. Thus, an API implies that some program module is available in the computer to perform the operation or that it must be linked into the existing program to perform the tasks.

What is Asynchronous Process in Appian?

In an asynchronous process, one activity sends a message to another, but does not wait until it gets a response. A phone call to another person is a synchronous process – it can’t go forward if the person you want to talk to doesn’t answer the phone. Leaving a message on an answering machine turns it into an asynchronous process. You leave your message and go on with your business, figuring the person will respond when they get the message.

What is Balanced Scorecard in Appian?

A movement, method and technique for aligning measures from an organization’s strategic goals to specific process measures. It stresses measuring a variety of things to obtain a good overview of what’s actually happening. A complementary approach to what we recommend. Usually associated with Robert Kaplan and David Norton.

What is Batch Processing in Appian?

In either human or computer processes, a step where lots of items are accumulated and then processed together. In contrast to continuous processing where items are processes as soon as possible.

Wat is Benchmarks in Appian?

As used in business process redesign, data about process measures obtained for specific types of processes. Many companies seek benchmark data on processes they seek to redesign in order to determine how well other companies manage the process.

What is BPM Software?

BPM is software that automates, executes, and monitors business processes from beginning to end by connecting people to people, applications to applications, and people to applications

What is BPM System?

According to Gartner, Inc., BPM is “a management practice that provides for governance of a business’s process environment toward the goal of improving agility and operational performance.” This more holistic view offers a structured approach for optimizing processes and takes into account the software tools discussed above as well as an organization’s methods, policies, metrics, and management practices.

What is Business Analytics?

Aggregated information on business processes that enables managers to analyze process trends, view performance metrics, and respond to organizational change.

What is Business Intelligence (BI)?

Software systems and tools that seek to extract useful patterns or conclusions from masses of data.

What is Business Process?

At its most generic, any set of activities performed by a business that is initiated by an event, transforms information, materials or business commitments, and produces an output. Value chains and large-scale business processes produce outputs that are valued by customers. Other processes generate outputs that are valued by other processes.

Advanced Appian Interview Questions

What is Business Process Automation?

Refers to the use of computer systems and software to automate a process. Processes can be completely automated, so no human intervention is required, or semi-automated, when some human intervention is required to make decisions or handle exceptions. Techniques used for BP Automation, include workflow, BP-XML languages, ERP, and software development and EAI.

What is Business Process Design or Redesign?

Business Process Redesign focuses on making major changes in an existing process, or creating a new process. Depending on the size of the process, this can be a major undertaking, is done infrequently, and, once done, should be followed by continuous business process improvement.

Compared with BPR, as defined in the early Nineties, Business Process Redesign usually focuses on smaller scale processes and aims for more modest improvements. Redesign focuses on major improvements in existing processes. Design focuses on creating entirely new processes.

What is Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL, BPEL4WS)?

In the first draft of this glossary, we described two alternative XML business process languages, WSFL from IBM and XLANG from Microsoft. As the glossary is published, IBM, Microsoft and BEA have announced that they will be combining WSFL and XLANG to create a common XML business process language that will support both public (protocol) and private (execution) language.

What is Business Process Improvement (BPI)?

Business process improvement focuses on incrementally improving existing processes. There are many approaches, including the currently popular Six Sigma approach. BPI is usually narrowly focused and repeated over and over again during the life of each process.

What is Business Process Management (BPM)?

Refers to aligning processes with an organization’s strategic goals, designing and implementing process architectures, establishing process measurement systems that align with organizational goals, and educating and organizing managers so that they will manage processes effectively.

Business Process Management or BPM can also refer to various automation efforts, including workflow systems, XML Business Process languages and packaged ERP systems. In this case the management emphasizes the ability of workflow engines to control process flows, automatically measure processes, and M can also refer to various automation efforts, including workflow systems, XML Business Process languages and packaged ERP systems.

In this case the management emphasizes the ability of workflow engines to control process flows, automatically measure processes, and M can also refer to various automation efforts, including workflow systems, XML Business Process languages and packaged ERP systems.

In this case the management emphasizes the ability of workflow engines to control process flows, automatically measure processes, and ems that align with organizational goals, and educating and organizing managers so that they will manage processes effectively.

Business Process Management or BPM can also refer to various automation efforts, including workflow systems, XML Business Process languages and packaged ERP systems. In this case the management emphasizes the ability of workflow engines to control process flows, automatically measure processes, and to change process flows from a computer terminal.

What is Business Process Management (BPM) Platform?

A more comprehensive approach to BPM, it provides all of the process management capabilities of BPM software, plus the following functionality: knowledge management, document management, collaboration tools, business analytics, and a work portal.

What is Business Process Management (BPM) Solution?

A solution that automates, executes, and monitors business processes from beginning to end by connecting people to people, applications to applications, and people to applications.

Who are Business Process Management (BPM) Vendors?

Vendors that design, develop and/or sell Business Process Management software and solutions.

What is Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI)?

Consortium of business process modeling tools vendors and user companies that are working together to develop an XML-based business process language (BPMI), a notation for the language (BPMN) and a query language (BPQL). The idea is that companies would model their automated processes in BPMI and then be able to monitor and change the processes as needed. BPML would primarily be used by those who want to create collaborative Internet or Web Service systems.

What is Business Process Management Software (BPMS)?
An enterprise application software that enables an organization to streamline processes and gain organizational efficiency through the modeling, execution and analysis of business processes.

What is Business Process Modeling (BPM) Tool?
A software tool that lets managers or analysts create business process diagrams. Simple tools only support diagramming. Professional Business Process Modeling Tools store each model element in a database so that they can be reused on other diagrams or updated. Many Professional tools support simulation or code generation.

What is Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)?
Many companies outsource business processes to other companies to manage and execute. Few companies outsource core business processes that they depend on for their unique position in the market. They fear that the outsourcer won’t be able to improve the process quickly enough to respond to market changes. Some companies are now offering to outsource such processes, arguing that they have an approach that will let the owner make changes in the process as needed.

What is Business Process Reengineering (BPR)?
A term coined by Hammer and Davenport in the early Nineties. As originally defined in their books it emphasized starting from a blank sheet and completely reconceptualizing major business processes and using information technology in order to obtain breakthrough improvements in performance. The term became unpopular in the late Nineties and many business people associate BPR with failures. Those who still use the term have redefined it to mean what we mean by Business Process Redesign.

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What are Business Rules in Appian?
A statement describing a business policy or decision procedure. Some programming languages run business rules together into very complex algorithms. In business process analysis, each rule is usually stated independently, in the general format: If A and B, Then C. Workflow tools and detailed process diagrams both depend on business rules to specify how decisions are made. We generally associate business rules with activities.

A decision diamond is adequate to show what happens if a loan is accepted or rejected, but dozens or even hundreds of business rules may need to be defined to clarify what a loan should be accepted or rejected. Training programs, job aids, software systems and knowledge management systems aim to document business rules either to automate the decision process or to and make the rules available to other decision makers.

What is Collaborative BPM?
BPM created using a collaborative business process language (usually ebXML). It is particularly suitable to describe the collaborations between partners that are all considered at the same level.

What are Collaborative Tools?
Tools like discussion forums, dynamic workspaces, and message boards that are provided within the BPM platform framework and are designed to remove intra- and inter-departmental communication barriers.

What is Composite Process Application?
An enterprise application that is developed and deployed using a BPM platform to solve a particular business problem, such as complying with regulatory standards or managing a company’s assets. By integrating existing applications, pulling relevant data, and connecting appropriate people, it overcomes the limitations of traditional enterprise applications, offering more flexibility and scalability as well as better collaboration and integration.

What is Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE)?
Software methods and tools designed to generate code from models. Those involved in the CASE movement have always sought to make software generation more systematic and predictable. Software developers often use CASE tools to model business processes.

What is Continuous Process Improvement?
A strategy to find ways to improve process and product performance measures on an ongoing basis.

What is Core Business Process?
Core processes are the processes that rely on the unique knowledge and skills of the owner and that contribute to the owner’s competitive advantage. Contrast with subsidiary business processes.

What is COULD Process in Appian?
Also sometimes Can-Be Process. Description of one of two or more alternative redesigns that are being considered.

What is Customer Resource Management (CRM)?
A vague term describing any of a number of packaged or tailored applications or tools designed to help with sales, tracking customers, or managing information gained from customer interactions.

What is Dashboard?
A user interface that resembles the dashboard of an automobile. Dashboards contain small graphs, charts, and gauges that provide data on key information within an organization.

What is Data Warehouse?
A record of an enterprise’s past transactional and operational information, stored in a database. Data warehousing is not meant for current “live” data; rather, data from the production databases are copied to the data warehouse so that queries can be performed without disturbing the performance or the stability of the production systems.

What is Database?
A collection of records stored in a computer in a systematic way, such that a computer program called a database management system (DBMS) can consult it to answer questions. DBMSs can manage many forms of data, including text, images, sound, and video. For better retrieval and sorting, each record is usually organized as a set of data elements. The items retrieved in answer to queries become information that can be used to make decisions that might otherwise be more difficult or impossible to make.

What is Decision Point or Diamond?
A diamond or hexagonal figure used on process diagrams to show when a decision leads to a branching in the flow of information, control or materials. Technically, all decisions take place within activities and arrows only show the flow between activities. As a convenience, however, if the decisions lead to branching, we often represent them on the process diagram and label them to indicate why a flow would go to one subsequent activity rather than another.

What is DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control)?
An acronym used by Six Sigma practitioners to remind them of the steps in a Six Sigma improvement project.

What is Document Management?
A system for storing and securing electronic documents, images, and other files within an organization. The term used to imply the management of documents after they were scanned into the computer. Today, the term has become an umbrella under which document imaging, workflow, text retrieval and multimedia fall.

What is ebXML (electronic business XML)?
A consortium set up by two other organizations, a United Nations (UN/CEFACT) committee and OASIS, an Internet consortium. ebXML is charged with creating an XML architecture that standardizes all of the services companies will need to build Web Services. One sub-committee of ebXML is focused on business process communication, and has proposed BPSS.

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What is Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)?
A pre-Internet system for exchanging data between organizations. EDI requires that organizations standardize terms and invest heavily in computers and the maintenance of the EDI software. Although some companies use EDI systems and will only phase them out slowly, EDI is being replaced by less expensive Internet systems and protocols like XML.

What is Enterprise Application?
As used by software designers, an enterprise system is a major software application that is designed to be used or accessed by many different departments and is usually maintained at the corporate level. Payroll is a good example of an enterprise system.

What is Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)?
As companies seek to link their existing software applications with each other and with portals, the ability to get their applications to exchange data has become critical. EAI is usually close to the top of any CIO’s list of concerns. There are different approaches to EAI. Some rely on linking specific applications with tailored code, but most rely on generic solutions, typically called middleware. XML, combined with SOAP and UDDI is a kind of middleware.

What is ERP-Driven Design?
When a company elects to use an ERP application, it is getting an application that already makes assumptions about the inputs and outputs it will receive. To insert such an application into an existing business process, the company must first determine where it will fit and what it will replace and redo the existing process so that it interfaces with the new ERP application. In effect, this is the reverse of what happens when a company redesigns a process and then asks an IT group to create an application that will take inputs generated by the process and make designated outputs.

What are Exceptions Processing?
The act of adjusting and repairing transactions that were unable to be completed. Without automation, organizations find that exceptions processing is one of the more costly and time-consuming efforts within their business.

What are Gaps and Disconnects Patterns?
A process redesign pattern that focuses on checking the handoffs between departments and functional groups in order to assure that flows across departmental lines are smooth and effective.

What is IS process diagram?
Also commonly AS-IS process diagram. A description or diagram of an existing process before changes are made.

Explain about SO 9000 (International Standards Organization)?
An international standard for how organizations should document their processes. In effect, an early effort to encourage organizations to create a well-defined process architecture. In practice, its too often simply an exercise in creating documentation to satisfy a requirement for getting on a bidding list.

What is J2EE (Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition)?
A software programming platform from Sun for developing and running distributed enterprise applications, based largely on modular components running on an application server. J2EE comprises a specification, reference implementation, and a set of testing platforms. J2EE is also considered informally to be a language or standard because providers must agree to certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products at J2EE compliant.

What is Junction and Junction Bar?
On a process diagram a way of showing that one flow (output) is divided and sent into multiple activities, or to show that multiple flows must all be complete before the activity immediately after the bar can occur.

What is KANO Analysis?
An approach to defining customer satisfaction that divides outputs , service or product features of outputs into (1) basic requirements (the minimum a customer expects), (2) satisfiers (additional outputs or features that please customers) and (3) delighters (outputs or features that the customer didn’t expect that really please customers. Associated with Noriaki Kano, a Japanese quality control expert.

What are Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)?
Personalized performance metrics and benchmarks that drive the financial and operational success of the company.

What is Knowledge Management (KM)?
BPM component that allows users to share tasks, content, documents, and notifications through knowledge communities.

What is Lean Manufacturing?
An approach to designing and managing production processes that emphasizes minimal inventory and just-in-time delivery, among other things, to improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process.

What is Measures Hierarchy?
A hierarchical tree that shows how organizational measures, pictured at the top or on the left are subdivided into more specific measures for value chains, processes, sub-processes and ultimately to activity goals. For every goal there are measures – specific tests of whether the goal is achieved or not. Thus, there is also a goal hierarchy that mirrors the goal hierarchy.

What is Middleware?
Software that allows two modules or applications to exchange data. Also see Enterprise Application Integration (EAI).

What is a Model in Appian?
A formal set of relationships that can be manipulated to test assumptions. A simulation that tests the number of units that can be processed each hour under a set of conditions is an example of a model. Models do not need to be graphical.

What is Model Driven Architecture (MDA)?
A new approach to application development being promoted by the Object Management Group. In essence, the idea is that organizations out to create abstract class models of their applications and then use those models to generate specific models and software code. The idea behind MDA is that the same abstract model could be used to generate different types of code. Thus, rather than creating new applications when new technologies come along, a company could have a high-level architecture and reusable components that it could use over and over again for many years. This approach is in the early stages of development but it has attracted quite a bit of attention. Compare with Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE).

What is Modeling?
In a loose sense, modeling simply refers to creating a simplified representation of something else. A model can be a picture, a diagram or a mathematical formula. In the sense of business process modeling, the term is referred to a diagrammatic representation of how work is done. In a rigorous sense, a model must specify formal relationships and assumptions that can be tested.

Within a process modeler, nodes are tasks or packages of functionality that, when connected, encompass an entire process. Nodes can be either attended (the task is assigned to a person) or unattended (the task is assigned to a computer system.)

An approach to structuring software applications. Instead of thinking of an application as a process with steps, we think of it as a set of objects that exchange messages. Now the dominant approach to software development. Java and Visual Basic are object-oriented software development languages.

Packaged Applications
Generically, any pre-packaged software application. Normally it is used as a way of referring to vendors who sell ERP or CRM application platforms that are organized to be used to integrate all of a company’s main software applications. By installing a number of packaged applications a company can assure that major business process applications in finance, accounting, human resources, and manufacturing all communicate smoothly and store data in a common database.

Parallel Process
A process in which two or more sequences of activities are going on simultaneously. If a physical document is being passed from one person to another, the process is necessarily a single sequence. An electronic document in a workflow system, on the other hand, can be sent to several people, simultaneously.

A Web site that allows the user to find other Web pages or Web sites. As a generalization, a portal is a train station. You go there in order to find out where else you can go and then to go there. Most companies will maintain one portal for their employees, where they can go to get information and to access company services, and another public portal for customers to provide customers with information and the opportunity to buy products or services from the company.

A set of activities and transactions that an organization conducts on a regular basis in order to achieve its objectives. It can be simple (i.e. order fulfillment) or complex (i.e. new product development), short-running (i.e. employee on-boarding) or long-running (i.e. regulatory compliance), function-specific (i.e. proposal management) or industry-specific (i.e. energy procurement). It can exist within a single department (i.e. billing), run throughout the entire enterprise (i.e. strategic sourcing), or extend across the whole value chain (i.e. supply chain management).

Process Analytics
Data about each particular tasks or events in a business process. This information can be used to fix bottlenecks, deal with exceptions, and optimize business processes.

Process Architecture
Also Business Process Architecture. A process architecture is a written or diagrammatic summary of the value chains and business processes supported by a given organization. A good process architecture shows how value chains and business processes are related to each other and to the strategic goals of the organization. Some companies use the term process architecture to refer to the process diagram for a single process. We refer to that as a process model or process diagram. We often add business or enterprise to process architecture to suggest that it’s a high-level architecture of all of the processes in the organization.

Process Designer
BPM component that allows a trained user to analyze and model a process, step by step, as well as assign logic to it.

Process Diagram
A diagram that shows the flow of information, control, or materials from one activity to another. The diagram shows departments, functions, or individuals on the vertical axis and uses swimlanes to show which sub-processes or activities are managed by which departments, functions or individuals. The customer of the process always appears on the top swimlane.

External processes are listed below the main process. The horizontal axis usually depicts the flow of time from left to right, although informal process diagrams sometimes allow loops which violate a strict time flow. Rectangles with rounded corners represent sub-processes or activities. Arrows represent various types of flow between rectangles.

Some developers divide process diagrams into IS process diagrams that show a process as it is currently performed, COULD process diagrams, that show how a process might be changed, and SHOULD process diagrams that show how a process redesign team ultimately proposes to change a process.

Process Engine
BPM component that executes the actual flow of a modeled process, assigning manual activities to people and automated activities to applications as the process unfolds.

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Process Instance
A process diagram describes a generic sequence of events. An instance describes an actual process which includes data, real actions, and specific decisions. Workflow systems and simulation systems both keep track of the data from the execution of specific process instances in order to determine things like how long the process actually takes, who handled a specific instance or how much it cost. In the case of simulation systems, someone has to supply information about a set of actual instances.

Process Management
Most managers or supervisors are responsible for specific processes or activities. They are responsible for organizing the process or activity and securing the resources need to execute it, and they are responsible for measuring the results of the activity and providing rewards or corrective feedback when necessary. They are also responsible for changing and improving it whenever possible.

Process Measures or Process Output Measures
Measures of whether a process or activity is achieving its goals. At every level, processes have outputs and those outputs should be measures to assure that the process is functioning as it should. In an ideal organization, company goals and measures are associated with value chains and then subdivided so that, at every level, managers are measuring process outcomes that are related to the ultimate goals and measures of the organization. If vertical alignment is ignored, its possible that activities or processes will be measured in ways that don’t contribute to the overall success of the larger process or the success of the company.

Process Modeling
Creating a diagrammatic representation of how a specific process is completed.

Rules Engine
BPM component that manages the flow of information and activities within a process according to the formulas and rules assigned to it.

Rummler-Brache Methodology
Geary Rummler and Alan Brache defined a comprehensive approach to organizing companies around processes, managing and measuring processes and redefining processes in their 1990 book Improving Processes. This is probably the best known, systematic approach to business process change and ideas first introduced in this book have been very influential on other, less comprehensive approaches.

Business Process Management software offered via a SaaS model. See Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) for more details.

Cross-functional analytic applications that define, measure, and analyze a business strategy according to Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Scorecards aggregate KPIs into higher level initiatives and objectives. Each KPI in a scorecard is weighted in a way that articulated its relative impact on the higher objective. The most famous scorecard is the Kaplan-Norton “balanced scorecard,” which measures a company’s activities in terms of its vision and strategies, and gives managers a comprehensive view of the performance of a business.

SHOULD process
Also TO-BE process. A description or diagram of the process that the redesign team proposes to create.

Silo Thinking
This is a metaphor drawn from the large grain silos that one sees throughout the US Midwest. It is a term of derision that suggests that each department on an organization chart is a silo and that its stands alone, not interacting with any of the other departmental silos.

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
An Internet protocol that is used to move XML files around the Internet.

A technique that uses a model to make predictions about a system or process. There are different types of simulation, some more informal and some more formal. Process simulation tools normally assign values to activities and then a number of cases to see how the business process will respond. The simulation of complex processes can often reveal outcomes that the developers don’t anticipate.

SIPOC (Supplier, Input, Process, Output, Customer)
An acronym used by Six Sigma practitioners to remind them of how to set up a high-level overview of a process.

Six Sigma
A movement, method and set of techniques focused on improving business processes. Relies heavily on statistical techniques to measure success. There are multiple Six Sigma methods, some designed for process improvement and some for designing or redesigning business processes. Most Six Sigma books, however, emphasize incremental process improvement. Often associated with Mikel Harry and Motorola.

Software Engineering
A movement, methods, and techniques aimed at making software development more systematic. Software methodologies, like the OMG’s UML, and software tools that help developers model application designs and then generate code are all closely associated with software engineering.

Software Requirements
A more or less formal statement of what a software application should do. Sometimes business analysts create requirements and hand them to software developers. Other times software analysts interview business people in order to determine the requirements for a software application development effort. Business people invariably define requirements less formally than necessary. Business people tend to define requirements with written statements or with process diagrams. Software developers are more likely to define software requirements by means of Use Case Diagrams or Class Diagrams, which often aren’t that clear to business analysts. Software Requirements constitute an important interface between business managers and IT organizations. If the handoff isn’t clear and precise then the resulting system is likely to disappoint the business people who requested it.

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
A provider licenses an application to customers as a service on demand, through a subscription or a “pay-as-you-go” model. SaaS is also called “software on demand.”

Standard Deviation
One standard deviation to the left or the right of the mean on a standard bell-shaped curve accounts for 34.13% of the variation. Two standard deviations, one to the left and one to the right, account for 68.26% of the variation. The Greek letter, Sigma, is used to represent a deviation. One determines deviations in actual situations by gathering data and determining what about of actual deviation accounts for 68.26% of the deviations, and so forth. Six Sigma people rely on tables to translate numbers into deviations or sigmas.

Standard or Normal Bell-Shaped Curve
A statistical tool for describing variations from a mean. Developed by Carl Frederick Gauss. Shows that most deviation is slight and that extreme variations are few and infrequent. Six Sigma relies on concepts derived from the standard curve, but the actual curve that is used in Six Sigma tables is a different curve defined by what is referred as long-run process drift.

Process analysis necessarily occurs on levels. A high-level process diagram shows major processes. Each major process is typically divided into sub-processes which are represented on separate process diagrams. Those processes, in turn, may be sub-divided into sub-processes. There is no logical limit to the number of times we may sub-divide processes into sub-processes. We repeat it until we understand the process in sufficient detail to successfully redesign or improve it. The smallest sub-processes we identify in any given analysis effort are arbitrarily called activities.

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Subsidiary Business Processes
Processes that support core business processes or processes that provide products or services that are not among the most important that the company produces. In most companies, IT and HR processes are classified as subsidiary processes because they exist to provide support services for the core business processes.

Super-system Diagram
An organization diagram that represents the company as a blank box and focuses on the elements like suppliers and customers that make inputs and outputs to the company. Normally we group outside elements into four groups: suppliers on the left, customers and shareholders on the right, governmental and environmental factors above, and competitors below.

Supplier-Oriented e-Business Applications
A generic way of talking about business processes and Internet applications that use the Internet to allow companies to link with business partners or suppliers to coordinate their efforts.

Supply Chain Council (SCC)
International consortium of companies that are interested in improving organizational supply chains. SCC has conferences, publications, and training programs. They promote SCOR, a systematic process methodology for creating supply chain systems.

Supply Chain Management (SCM)
A vague term describing any of a number of packaged or tailored applications or tools designed to help with the development or execution of supply chain systems or with managing information gained from supply chain interactions.

A row on a business process diagram. A way of indicating who is responsible for a given process or activity. Swimlanes are named on the left side of the process diagram. In most cases swimlanes are assigned to departments, groups within departments, individuals, or to applications, systems of applications or databases.

In exceptional cases, swimlanes may represent geographical regions. Processes, sub-processes or activities that fall within a given swimlane are the responsibility of the entity named on the left axis of the process diagram. (Some workflow tools represent swimlanes as vertical columns, effectively rotating the process diagrams 90 degrees. The distinction between horizontal or vertical swimlanes is arbitrary.)

Synchronous Process
In a synchronous process, one activity sends a message to another and then waits for a response before proceeding. A phone call to another person is a synchronous process – it can’t go forward if the person you want to talk to doesn’t answer the phone. Leaving a message on an answering machine turns it into an asynchronous process. You leave your message and go on with your business, figuring the person will respond when they get the message.

Three Levels of Organization (Performance Framework)
A Rummler-Brache concept. Holds that there are three primary levels of business process analysis: the organizational level, the process level, and the activity or performance level (which Improving Performance called the Job Level).

Sometimes presented as a matrix, the Performance Framework, where the 3 levels are shown on the vertical axis and the perspectives or viewpoints are shown on the horizontal axis: Goals and Measures, Design and Implementation, and Management. A nice way of classifying the concerns that a comprehensive business process approach should encompass.

Total Quality Management (TQM)
A movement, an industrial discipline, and a set of techniques for improving the quality of processes. TQM emphasizes constant measures and statistical techniques to help improve and then maintain the output quality of processes. Often associated with Edwards Deming.

Transaction or Production Workflow Systems
A type of workflow system that moves documents or information from one terminal to another following a workflow model. Compare with Ad Hoc and Administrative Workflow Systems.

Transitioning to a New Process
The transition period occurs after managers and employees have been trained in the new process, when they actually start using it. A successful transition depends on having senior management support and having measurement and incentive systems in place to assure that local managers work to see that the new process is implemented correctly.

Unified Modeling Language (UML)
An international, standard notation for modeling software systems. The UML specification supports several different types of diagrams, including the Activity Diagram, which is used to model business processes and workflow diagrams. UML was created and is maintained by the OMG.

Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI)
A Web protocol, based on the WSDL language, that allows one Web system to locate others and determine what format messages to that system must take.

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Use Case Diagram
One type of UML diagram. Often used by software developers to define the software requirements for a system. Use case diagrams focus on scenarios that describe how users use the application.

Value Chain
A very large-scale business process that is initiated by a customer request, or by the decision of the company to enter a new line of business, and results in the delivery of a process or service to a customer. A value chain includes everything that contributes to the output. By adding up all of the costs of each activity in a value chain, and subtracting the total from the sale price, an organization can determine the profit margin on the value chain. Most organizations support from 3 to 15 value chains. Many managers associate value chains with the description provided in Michael Porter’s Competitive Advantage (1985).

Web services
A vague term that refers to distributed or virtual applications or processes that use the Internet to link activities or software components. A travel Web site that takes a reservation from a customer, and then sends a message to a hotel application, accessed via the Web, to determine if a room is available, books it, and tells the customer he or she has a reservation is an example of a Web Services application.

Web Services Flow Language (WSFL)
Early IBM XML business process language. See BPEL4WS.

Work Portal
BPM platform component that gives users a productive workspace for managing tasks, content, forms, documents, notifications, and reminders.

Generic term for a process or for the movement of information or material from one activity (worksite) to another.

Workflow Model
Another name for a process diagram. Often includes both a diagram and rules that define the flow of information from one activity to the next. If used in conjunction with a workflow system or engine, a software-based process diagram that becomes the program for a workflow system that will move information from a database to one computer terminal after another.

Workflow Reference Model
Model created by the Workflow Management Coalition to define a workflow management system and to identify the most important system interfaces. Other WfMC standards make reference to this model.

Workflow System or Engine
A software tool or program that helps analysts define a process and the rules governing process decisions, and then manages the actual distribution of information related to specific instances or cases to terminals and databases.

XML (eXtended Markup Language)
An Internet protocol defined by the W3C. A file format that includes within a file both data and rules for how the data is to be interpreted. Using XML, one can create XML languages – in effect, sets of terms that companies agree to use in a specific way in order to facilitate the exchange of data. Emerging as the most popular way to transmit data between applications and companies over the Internet.

XML Business Process Language
A computing language in which one can describe business processes and their relationships. These languages use XML to pass messages.

XML-Based Process Definition Language (XPDL)
The Workflow Management Collation (WfMC) created this standard language to describe how workflow tools can communicate information about business processes with each other over the Internet.

Reference: Content Originally Published on Appian BPM 


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Drools Interview Questions

51 Drools Interview Questions For Experienced 2018. If you are searching for jBPM Drools rule engine interview questions, this article will help you with 89 real-time scenario based Drools interview questions to crack your next Drools job interview. Coding compiler wishing you all the very best for your future and happy learning.

Drools Interview Questions

What is Drools?
What are the advantages of using Drools?
How to halt process in DRL file
How to remove a object from KnowledgeSession in Drools after fireAllRules?
What are Drools global variables?
What is accumulate function in drl drools?
What are Drools recursive rules?
Explain DRL Drools get rule name salience agenda-group in DRL file?
What is Drools clear agenda group?
What is Drools Agenda Group setFocus?
How can you Check if Object does not exists in Working Memory in DRL Drools?
What is Drools DRL Create Knowledge Session and Knowledge Base?
Difference between Drools Stateful vs Stateless Knowledge Session?
How to create a Drools Knowledge Base as Singleton?

Advanced Drools Interview Questions for Experienced

What are Decision Tables? Have you used it?
What is the productized version of Drools?
What is meant by accumulate in DRL Drools?
What is meant by Drools Stateful vs Stateless Knowledge Session?
How is Backward chaining implemented in Drools?
Which Drools attributes have you used?
What are the different execution control statements in drools?
Have you integrated Drools with other frameworks? If yes explain why?
What is the standard supported by Drool?
What is JBoss Enterprise BRMS?
What is the productized version of Drools?
What are the components of JBoss Enterprise Version?
What are the features of JBoss Enterprise Web Platform?
What are the features of JBoss Enterprise Application or SOA Platform?
Who use the Business Rules Engine?
What are the two rules that are exhibited at the time of installation?

Real-Time Scenario Based Drools Interview Questions

How to count the number of object types in working memory in Drools?
What is Drools Collection Iteration?
How to handle NULL or NOT NULL in DROOLS?
How to add multiple action statements in drools fluent api?
What is nullpointer in kieservices.factory.get()?
How to iterate over a list of String and change it in RHS in drools?
Convert Drools drl file to javascript file in Drools?
How to create runtime a pojo object from a properties file in Drools?
How can you convert the rules from JSON format to DRL format?
What is Drools XStream in a spring service?
It is possible to define rules dynamically completely at runtime in Drools?
How can you load Drools/KIE Workbench artifacts directly from the repository?
How to add rules to a running KieSession?
How do you setup drools Kie execution server credentials?
How to manipulate guided decision table from Java API in Drools?
What is the new accepted way of programmatically creating new drools rules in Drools 6?
How to compile a .drl file through an ant build script in Drools?
What is Mvel dialect in Drools?
How to integrate Drools with Scala?
Difference between ‘Drools Camel Server’ vs ‘KIE-WB Execution Server’?


  1. Talend Interview Questions
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Talend Interview Questions

89 Talend Interview Questions For Experienced. If you are searching for ETL tool Talend Studio interview questions, this article will help you with 89 real-time scenario based Talend ETL interview questions to crack your next Talend job interview. Coding compiler wishing you all the very best for your future and happy learning.

Talend Interview Questions

What is Talend ?
What is difference between ETL and ELT components of Talend ?
How to deploy talend projects ?
What are types of available version of Talend ?
How to implement versioning for talend jobs ?
What is tMap component ?
What is difference between tMap and tJoin compoents ?
Which component is used to sort that data ?
How to perform aggregate operations/functions on data in talend ?
What types of joins are supported by tMap component ?
How to schedule a talend job ?
How to runs talend job as web service ?
How to Integrate SVN with Talend ?
How to run talend jobs on Remote server ?
How to pass data from parent job to child jobs through trunjob component ?
How to load context variables dynamically from file/database ?
How to run talend jobs in Parallel ?
What is Context variables ?
How to export a talend job ?
What is the purpose of Talend Runtime ?
How to use Talend job conductor ?
How to send email notifications with job execution status ?

ETL Tool Talend Studio Interview Questions

1. Talend – Merge multiple files into single file with sorting operation.
2. Loading Fact Table Using Talend
3. ROWNUM Analytical Function in Talend
4. SCD-2 Implementations in Talend
5. Deployment strategies in Talend
6. Custom Header Footer in Talend
7. Data Masking Using Talend
8. How to use Shared DB Connection in Talend
9. Load all rows from source to target except last 5
10. Late Arriving Dimension Using Talend
11. Date Dimension Using Talend
12. Dynamic Column Ordering Of Source File Using Talend
13. Incremental Load Using Talend
14. Getting Files From FTP Server
15. Initializing Context At Run Time Using Popup
16. User Define Function In Talend
17. Calling DB Sequence From Talend

Advanced Talend Interview Questions For Experienced

1. Difference between tAggregatedRow and tAggregateSortedRow in Talend
2. How to resume job execution from same location if job get failed in Talend
3. How to execute more than one sub jobs parallel in Talend
4. How to iterate filename and directories in Talend
5. What is the difference between OnSubjobOK and OnComponentOK in Talend
6. How can you pass a value form parent job to child job in Talend
7. How to call stored procedure and function in Talend Job
8. How to export job and execute outside from Talend Studio
9. How to pass value from outside in Talend
10. Can I define schema of database or tables at run time
11. What is tReplicate in Talend
12. What is tUnite in Talend Open Studio
13. How to optimize talend job to stop outOfMemory runtime error
14. How to optimize Talend Performance
15. How to execute multipule SQL statements with one component in Talend
16. What is tSystem component in Talend
17. Can I execute multiple commands at one time with a tSystem component
18. What is difference between tMap and tFilterrow in Talend

Talend Scenarios Interview Questions

1. What is the difference between the ETL and ELT components of Talend Open Studio?
2. How does one deploy Talend projects?
3. What are the elements of a Talend project?
4. What is the most current version of Talend Open Studio?
5. How do you implement versioning for Talend jobs?
6. What is the tMap component?
7. What is the difference between the tMap and tJoin components?
8. Which *component* is used to sort data?

Real-Time Talend Interview Questions

1. Talend workspace path should not contain any spaces.
2. Never forget to perform Null Handling.
3. Create Repository Metadata for DB connections and retrieve database table schema for DB tables.
4. Use Repository Schema for Files/DB and DB connections.
5. Create Database connection using t<Vendor>Connection component and use this connection in the Job. Do not make new connection with every component.
6. Always close the connection to database using t<Vendor>Close component.
7. Create a Repository Document corresponding to every Talend job including revision history.
8. Provide Sub Job title for every sub job to describe the sub job purpose/objective.
9. Avoid Hard Coding in Talend Job component. Instead use Talend context variables.
10. Create Context Groups in Repository
11. Use Talend.properties file to provide the values to context variables using tContextLoad.
12. Create Variables in tMap and use the variables to assign the values to target fields.
13. Create user routines/functions for common transformation and validation.
14. Develop Talend job iteratively.
15. Always Exit Talend open studio before shutting down the PC.
16. Always rename Main Flows in Talend Job to meaningful names.
17. Always design Talend jobs by keeping performance in mind.

Talend Certification Exam Questions

1. Remove Unnecessary fields/columns ASAP using tFilterColumns component.
2. Remove Unnecessary data/records ASAP using tFilterRows component
3. Use Select Query to retrieve data from database
4. Use Database Bulk components
5. Store on Disk Option
6. Allocating more memory to the Jobs
7. Parallelism
8. Use Talend ELT Components when required
9. Use SAX parser over Dom4J whenever required
10. Index Database Table columns
11. Split Talend Job to smaller Subjobs

Source: rathinasamyy.blogspot.in


  1. Selenium Interview Questions
  2. Ab Initio Interview Questions
  3. AB Testing Interview Questions
  4. Mobile Application Testing Interview Questions
  5. Pega Interview Questions
  6. UI Developer Interview Questions
  7. Tableau Interview Questions
  8. SAP ABAP Interview Questions
  9. Reactjs Interview Questions
  10. UiPath Interview Questions
  11. Automation Anywhere Interview Questions
  12. RPA Interview Questions
  13. RPA Blue Prism Interview Questions
  14. Ranorex Interview Questions
  15. AWS Interview Questions
  16. SSRS Interview Questions
  17. SQL Interview Questions
  18. Informatica MDM Interview Questions
  19. CyberArk Interview Questions
  20. SAP SD Interview Questions
  21. SAP EWM Interview Questions
  22. Advanced Javascript Interview Questions
  23. Angular 2 Interview Questions
  24. AngularJS Interview Questions
  25. Accenture Java Interview Questions
  26. Advanced Java Interview Questions
  27. Core Java Interview Questions
  28. .NET Interview Questions
  29. Ansible Interview Questions
  30. ServiceNow Interview Questions

Selenium Interview Questions For Experienced

200 Selenium Interview Questions For Experienced 2018 – If you are looking for Selenium Webdriver Interview Questions, this article provides a list of two hundred real-time selenium scenario based interview questions. This list will help testing professionals to crack their next Selenium job interview. All the best for your future and happy learning.

Selenium Interview Questions

What is Automation Testing?
What are the different types of locators in Selenium?
What is the difference between assert and verify commands?
What is an XPath?
What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?
What is Same origin policy and how it can be handled?
When should I use Selenium Grid?
What do we mean by Selenium 1 and Selenium 2?
Which is the latest Selenium tool?
How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?
What are the different types of Drivers available in WebDriver?
What are the benefits of Automation Testing?
What are the different types of waits available in WebDriver?
How to type in a textbox using Selenium?
How can you find if an element displayed on the screen?
How can we get a text of a web element?
How to select value in a drop down?

Most Popularly Asked Selenium Interview Questions

What are the different types of navigation commands?
How to click on a hyper link using linkText?
How to handle frame in WebDriver?
When do we use findElement( and findElements(?
How to find more than one web element in the list?
Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?
What is the difference between driver.close( and driver.quit command?
Can Selenium handle windows based pop up?
How can we handle web based pop up?
How can we handle windows based pop up?
How to assert title of the web page?
How to mouse hover on a web element using WebDriver?
How to retrieve css properties of an element?
How to capture screenshot in WebDriver?
What is Junit?

Top Selenium Interview Questions

What are Junit annotations?
What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?
What is TestNG and how is it better than Junit?
How to set test case priority in TestNG?
What is a framework?
What are the advantages of Automation framework?
What are the different types of frameworks?
How can I read test data from excels?
What is the difference between POI and jxl jar?
What is the difference between Selenium and QTP?
Can WebDriver test Mobile applications?
Can captcha be automated?
What are the testing types that can be supported by Selenium?
What is Object Repository? How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?
What are the limitations of Selenium?
What is the difference between Selenium IDE, Selenium RC and WebDriver?
When should I use Selenium IDE?
What is Selenese?
Source: softwaretestinghelp.com

Selenium Webdriver Interview Questions

Explain the difference between single and double slash in X-path? Single slash ‘/ ’
Explain what is assertion in Selenium and what are the types of assertion?
How will you find an element using Selenium?
List out the technical challenges with Selenium? Technical challenges with Selenium are
List out the test types that are supported by Selenium?
Mention what is Selenium 3.0?
Mention what is the use of X-path?
What is Selenium 2.0?
What is Selenium and what is composed of?
Can we use Selenium grid for performance testing?
Can we use Selenium RC to drive tests on two different browsers on one operating system without Selenium Grid?
Explain how Selenium Grid works?
Explain how to assert text of webpage using selenium 2.0?
Explain how to iterate through options in test script?
Explain how you can capture server side log Selenium Server?
Explain how you can debug the tests in Selenium IDE ?
Explain how you can find broken images in a page using Selenium Web driver ?

Essential Selenium Interview Questions

Explain how you can handle colors in web driver?
Explain how you can handle frames using Selenium 2.0?
Explain how you can insert a break point in Selenium IDE ?
Explain how you can insert a start point in Selenium IDE?
Explain how you can login into any site if it’s showing any authentication popup for password and username?
Explain how you can switch back from a frame?
Explain how you can switch between frames?
Explain how you can use recovery scenario with Selenium?
Explain in Selenium IDE how can you debug the tests?
Explain using Webdriver how you can perform double click ?
Explain what are the JUnits annotation linked with Selenium?
Explain what are the limitations of Selenium IDE?
Explain what can cause a Selenium IDE test to fail?
Explain what is Datadriven framework and Keyword driven?
Explain what is framework and what are the frameworks available in RC?
Explain what is the difference between Borland Silk and Selenium?

Frequently Asked Selenium Interview Questions

Explain what is the difference between find elements () and find element () ?
Explain what is the main difference between web-driver and RC ?
For Database Testing in Selenium Webdriver what API is required?
From Selenium IDE how you can execute a single line?
From your test script how you can create html test report?
How can we handle pop-ups in RC ?
How can you prepare customized html report using TestNG in hybrid framework ?
How can you retrive the message in an alert box ?
How do you identify an object using selenium?
How Selenium grid hub keeps in touch with RC slave machine?
How will you handle working with multiple windows in Selenium ?
How will you use Selenium to upload a file ?
How will you verify the specific position of an web element
How you can convert any Selenium IDE tests from Selenese to another language?
How you can use “submit” a form using Selenium ?
In Selenium IDE how you can generate random numbers and dates for test data ?
In selenium IDE what are the element locators that can be used to locate elements on web page?
In Selenium what are Breakpoints and Startpoints?
In which format does source view shows your script in Selenium IDE ?
List out different types of locators?

Selenium Real Time Interview Questions

List the advantages of Webdriver over Selenium Server?
Mention different exceptions you had in Selenium web driver?
Mention in what ways you can customize TestNG report?
Mention what are the advantages of Using Git Hub For Selenium?
Mention what are the capabilities of Selenium WebDriver or Selenium 2.0?
Mention what are the challenges in Handling Ajax Call in Selenium Webdriver?
Mention what are the types of Listeners in TestNG?
Mention what is desired capability? How is it useful in terms of Selenium?
Mention what is IntelliJ?
Mention what is Listeners in Selenium WebDriver?
Mention what is the difference between Implicit wait and Explicit wait?
Mention when to use AutoIT?
Mention why do you need Session Handling while working with Selenium?
Mention why to choose Python over Java in Selenium?
Other than the default port 444 how you can run Selenium Server?
To enter values onto text boxes what is the command that can be used?
To generate pdf reports mention what Java API is required?
Using Selenium how can you handle network latency ?

Selenium Interview Questions for Experienced

Using Selenium IDE is it possible to get data from a particular html table cell ?
Using web driver how you can store a value which is text box?
What are core extension ?
What are the advantages of RC?
What are the advantages of Selenium?
What are the features of TestNG and list some of the functionality in TestNG which makes it more effective?
What are the four parameter you have to pass in Selenium? Four parameters that you have to pass in Selenium are
What are the technical limitations while using Selenium RC?
What are the two modes of views in Selenium IDE ?
What if you have written your own element locator and how would you test it?
What is heightened privileges browsers?
What is JUnit Annotations and what are different types of annotations which are useful ?
What is Object Repository ?
What is regular expressions? How you can use regular expressions in Selenium ?
What is same origin policy? How you can avoid same origin policy?
What is Selenese and what are the types of Selenese ?
What is selenium RC (Remote Control)?

Selenium Tricky Interview Questions

What is the command that is used in order to display the values of a variable into the output console or log?
What is the difference between getWindowhandles() and getwindowhandle() ?
What is the difference between setSpeed() and sleep() methods?
What is the difference between type keys and type commands ?
What is the difference between verify and assert commands?
Which attribute you should consider throughout the script in frame for “if no frame Id as well as no frame name”?
Which web driver implementation is fastest?
While injecting capabilities in webdriver to perform tests on a browser which is not supported by a webdriver what is the limitation that one can come across?
While using click command can you use screen coordinate?
Why Selenium RC is used?
Why testers should opt for Selenium and not QTP? Selenium is more popular than QTP as
Why to use TestNG with Selenium RC ?
Source: Guru99.com

Selenium Webdriver Interview Questions for 2 Years Experience

Question 1) What are the annotations used in TestNG ?
Question 2) How do you read data from excel ?
Question 3) What is the use of xpath ?
Question 4) What are different types of locators ?
Question 5) What is the difference between Assert and Verify?
Question 6) What is the alternate way to click on login button?
Question 7) How do you verify if the checkbox/radio is checked or not ?
Question 8) How do you handle alert pop-up ?
Question 9) How do you launch IE/chrome browser?
Question 10) How to perform right click using WebDriver?
Question 11) How do perform drag and drop using WebDriver?
Question 12) Give the example for method overload in WebDriver.
Question 13) How do you upload a file?
Question 14) How do you click on a menu item in a drop down menu?
Question 15) How do you simulate browser back and forward ?
Question 16) How do you get the current page URL ?
Question 17) What is the difference between ‘/’ and ‘//’ ?
Question 18) What is the difference between findElement and findElements?
Question 19) How do you achieve synchronization in WebDriver ?
Question 20) Write the code for Reading and Writing to Excel through Selenium ?

Selenium Interview Questions for 3 Years Experience

Question 21) How to get typed text from a textbox ?
Question 22) What are the different exceptions you got when working with WebDriver ?
Question 23) What are the languages supported by WebDriver ?
Question 24) How do you clear the contents of a textbox in selenium ?
Question 25) What is a Framework ?
Question 26) What are the prerequisites to run selenium webdriver?
Question 27) What are the advantages of selenium webdriver?
Question 28) What is WebDriverBackedSelenium ?
Question 29) How to invoke an application in webdriver ?
Question 30) What is Selenium Grid ?
Question 31) How to get the number of frames on a page ?
Question 32) How do you simulate scroll down action ?
Question 33) What is the command line we have to write inside a .bat file to execute a selenium project when we are using testng ?
Question 34) Which is the package which is to be imported while working with WebDriver ?
Question 35) How to check if an element is visible on the web page ?
Question 36) How to check if a button is enabled on the page ?
Question 37) How to check if a text is highlighted on the page ?
Question 38) How to check the checkbox or radio button is selected ?
Question 39) How to get the title of the page ?
Question 40) How do u get the width of the textbox ?

Selenium Interview Questions for 4 Years Experience

Question 41) How do u get the attribute of the web element ?
Question 42) How to check whether a text is underlined or not ?
Question 43) How to change the URL on a webpage using selenium web driver ?
Question 44) How to hover the mouse on an element ?
Question 45) What is the use of getOptions() method ?
Question 46) What is the use of deSelectAll() method ?
Question 47) Is WebElement an interface or a class ?
Question 48) FirefoxDriver is class or an interface and from where is it inherited ?
Question 49) Which is the super interface of webdriver ?
Question 50) What is the difference b/w close() and quit()?
Source: toolsqa.com


  1. Ab Initio Interview Questions
  2. AB Testing Interview Questions
  3. Mobile Application Testing Interview Questions
  4. Pega Interview Questions
  5. UI Developer Interview Questions
  6. Tableau Interview Questions
  7. SAP ABAP Interview Questions
  8. Reactjs Interview Questions
  9. UiPath Interview Questions
  10. Automation Anywhere Interview Questions
  11. RPA Interview Questions
  12. RPA Blue Prism Interview Questions
  13. Ranorex Interview Questions
  14. AWS Interview Questions
  15. SSRS Interview Questions
  16. SQL Interview Questions
  17. Informatica MDM Interview Questions
  18. CyberArk Interview Questions
  19. SAP SD Interview Questions
  20. SAP EWM Interview Questions
  21. Advanced Javascript Interview Questions
  22. Angular 2 Interview Questions
  23. AngularJS Interview Questions
  24. Accenture Java Interview Questions
  25. Advanced Java Interview Questions
  26. Core Java Interview Questions
  27. .NET Interview Questions
  28. Ansible Interview Questions
  29. ServiceNow Interview Questions
  30. SSIS Interview Questions And Answers